⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Child Development Stages Piaget

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Child Development Stages Piaget



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The Growth of Knowledge: Crash Course Psychology #18

Watson and B. Skinner , insisted that learning occurs purely through processes of association and reinforcement. Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and is based on the theories of theorists such as John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, and B. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Development is considered a reaction to rewards, punishments, stimuli, and reinforcement.

This theory differs considerably from other child development theories because it gives no consideration to internal thoughts or feelings. Instead, it focuses purely on how experience shapes who we are. Two important types of learning that emerged from this approach to development are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by pairing a naturally occurring stimulus with a previously neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning utilizes reinforcement and punishment to modify behaviors. Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person's thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world.

Theorist Jean Piaget proposed one of the most influential theories of cognitive development. Piaget proposed an idea that seems obvious now, but helped revolutionize how we think about child development: Children think differently than adults. His cognitive theory seeks to describe and explain the development of thought processes and mental states. It also looks at how these thought processes influence the way we understand and interact with the world. Piaget then proposed a theory of cognitive development to account for the steps and sequence of children's intellectual development.

There is a great deal of research on the social development of children. John Bowbly proposed one of the earliest theories of social development. Bowlby believed that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and continue to influence social relationships throughout life. Bowlby's attachment theory suggested that children are born with an innate need to form attachments.

Such attachments aid in survival by ensuring that the child receives care and protection. Not only that, but these attachments are characterized by clear behavioral and motivational patterns. In other words, both children and caregivers engage in behaviors designed to ensure proximity. Children strive to stay close and connected to their caregivers who in turn provide a safe haven and a secure base for exploration. Researchers have also expanded upon Bowlby's original work and have suggested that a number of different attachment styles exist. Children who receive consistent support and care are more likely to develop a secure attachment style, while those who receive less reliable care may develop an ambivalent, avoidant, or disorganized style.

Social learning theory is based on the work of psychologist Albert Bandura. Bandura believed that the conditioning and reinforcement process could not sufficiently explain all of human learning. For example, how can the conditioning process account for learned behaviors that have not been reinforced through classical conditioning or operant conditioning According to social learning theory, behaviors can also be learned through observation and modeling. By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information. Bandura's child development theory suggests that observation plays a critical role in learning, but this observation does not necessarily need to take the form of watching a live model.

Instead, people can also learn by listening to verbal instructions about how to perform a behavior as well as through observing either real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books or films. Another psychologist named Lev Vygotsky proposed a seminal learning theory that has gone on to become very influential, especially in the field of education. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences. His sociocultural theory also suggested that parents, caregivers, peers and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. In Vygotsky's view, learning is an inherently social process.

Through interacting with others, learning becomes integrated into an individual's understanding of the world. This child development theory also introduced the concept of the zone of proximal development, which is the gap between what a person can do with help and what they can do on their own. It is with the help of more knowledgeable others that people are able to progressively learn and increase their skills and scope of understanding. As you can see, some of psychology's best-known thinkers have developed theories to help explore and explain different aspects of child development.

While not all of these theories are fully accepted today, they all had an important influence on our understanding of child development. Today, contemporary psychologists often draw on a variety of theories and perspectives in order to understand how kids grow, behave, and think. These theories represent just a few of the different ways of thinking about child development.

In reality, fully understanding how children change and grow over the course of childhood requires looking at many different factors that influence physical and psychological growth. Genes, the environment, and the interactions between these two forces determine how kids grow physically as well as mentally. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Organophosphates have been specifically linked to poorer working memory , verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and processing speed. Cognitive development is related to childhood exposure to violence and trauma, including spousal abuse between the parents and sexual abuse.

When a child is unable to meet their developmental goals, because they have not been provided with the correct amount of care, stimulation or nutrition this situation is commonly referred to as child neglect. It is the most widespread form of child abuse. Scientific studies show that exposure to child neglect can have lifelong consequences for children. Assessing and identifying neglect pose a number of challenges for practitioners.

Given that neglect is a dynamic between the child's development and levels of nurturance, the question in identifying neglect, becomes one of where do you start, with the child's development or with the levels of nurturance? Some professionals identify neglect by measuring the developmental levels of a child, for if those developmental levels are normal, one can, by definition, conclude that a child is not being neglected. All these features go up to make a medical assessment of whether a child is thriving, so that a professional looking to start an assessment of neglect, might reasonably start with information collected by a doctor. Infants are often weighed and measured when seen by their physicians for well-baby check-ups.

The physician initiates a more complete evaluation when the infant's development and functioning are found to be delayed. What this suggests is that social work staff could consult medical notes to establish if the baby or child is failing to thrive, as a first step in a pathway towards identifying neglect. If developmental levels are subnormal, then the identification of neglect then requires the professional establish if those subnormal levels of development can be put down to the level of nurturance experienced by the child. One needs to discount that the developmental delay was caused by some genetic condition or disease, which do not have their basis in a lack of nurturance.

Another way of starting a process for identifying neglect is to identify if the child in question is experiencing a level of nurturance lower than that considered necessary to support normal development. Furthermore, ascertaining whether a child is getting the requisite level of nurturance needs to take into account not just the intensity of the nurturance, but also, given that the intensity of certain forms of nurturance can vary across time, the duration and frequency of the nurturance. It is acceptable for a child to experience varying and low levels of certain types of nurturance across a day and from time to time, however, the levels of nurturance should never cross thresholds of intensity, duration and frequency.

For this reason, professionals are minded to keep detailed histories of care provision, which demonstrate the duration to which the child is exposed to periods of subnormal exposure to care, stimulation, and nutrition. It is most common for guidance to suggest professionals should focus on the levels of nurturance provided by the carers of the child, where neglect is understood as an issue of the parents' behaviour towards the child. This raises the question about what level of nurturance, a carer or parent needs to fall under, to provoke developmental delay, and how one goes about measuring that accurately.

The method, which focuses on the stimulation provided by the carer, can be subject to critique. Neglect is about the child's development being adversely affected by the levels of nurturance, but the carers' provision of nurturance is not always a good indicator of the level of nurturance received by the child. Neglect may be occurring at school, outside of parental care. The child may be receiving nurturance from siblings or through a boarding school education, which compensates for the lack of nurturance provided by the parents.

Neglect is a process whereby children experience developmental delay owing to experiencing insufficient levels of nurturance. It has been argued that in principle, this means that when starting an assessment of neglect by identifying developmental delay one needs to then check the levels of nurturance received by the child. Certainly, where guidance on identifying neglect does urge for practitioners to measure developmental levels, some guidance urges practitioners to focus on how developmental levels can be attributed to parental behaviour. If one starts by concluding that the levels of nurture received by the child are insufficient, one then needs to consider the developmental levels achieved by the child.

Further challenges arise, however. Even when one has established developmental delay and exposure to low levels of nurture, one needs to rule out the possibility that the link between the two is coincidental. The developmental delay may be caused by a genetic disorder, disease or physical, sexual or emotional abuse. The developmental delay may be caused by a mixture of underexposure to nurture, abuse, genetics, and disease. It was developed in the UK. The North Carolina Family Assessment Scale is a tool that can be used by a practitioner to explore whether neglect is taking place across a range of family functioning areas.

Early intervention programs and treatments in developed countries include individual counselling, family, group counselling and social support services, behavioural skills training programs to eliminate problematic behaviour and teach parents "appropriate" parenting behaviour. Video interaction guidance is a video feedback intervention through which a "guider" helps a client to enhance communication within relationships. The client is guided to analyse and reflect on video clips of their own interactions. The SafeCare programme is a preventive programme working with parents of children under 6 years old who are at risk of experiencing significant harm through neglect. Triple P Parenting Program is a positive parenting program.

It is a multilevel, parenting and family support strategy. The idea behind it is that if parents are educated on "proper" parenting and given the appropriate resources, it could help decrease the number of child neglect cases. When deciding whether to leave a child home alone, caregivers need to consider the child's physical, mental, and emotional well-being, as well as state laws and policies regarding this issue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Developmental change in children. Main article: Ecological systems theory. Main articles: Jean Piaget and Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Main article: Child development stages. Main articles: Lev Vygotsky and Cultural-historical psychology. Main article: Attachment theory. Main articles: Erik Erikson and Psychosocial development. Main article: Behavior analysis of child development. See also: Nature versus nurture. See also: Child development stages. Development from childhood to the end of puberty, from The Adolescent Period. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Social emotional development.

Main article: Language development. Main article: Postpartum depression. Main article: Prenatal cocaine exposure. Psychology portal Biology portal. Attachment theory Birth order Child development stages Child life specialist Child prodigy Clinical social work Critical period Developmental psychology Developmental psychobiology Developmental psychopathology Early childhood education Evolutionary developmental psychology Pedagogy Play Psychoanalytic infant observation Child development in Africa Child development in India.

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Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. The Journal of Nutrition. It is thus a morality that comes from unilateral respect. That is to say the respect children owe to their parents, teachers and others. However as children get older the circumstances of their lives change and their whole attitude to moral questions undergoes a radical change.

An example of this is is how children respond to a question about the wrongdoing of a member of their peer group. They believe their primary obligation is to tell the truth to an adult when asked to do so. This would be one example of the two moralities of the child. The stage of autonomous morality is also known as moral relativism — morality based on your own rules. Children recognize there is no absolute right or wrong and that morality depends on intentions not consequences.

People make rules and people can change them — they are not inscribed on tablets of stone. Indeed sometimes they even become quite fascinated with the whole issue and will for example discuss the rules of board games like chess, Monopoly, cards or sport the off-side rule with all the interest of a lawyer. They also recognise that rules can be changed if circumstances dictate e. Children begin to realize that if they behave in ways that appear to be wrong, but have good intentions, they are not necessarily going to be punished. Thus for them a well-intentioned act that turned out badly is less blameworthy than a malicious act that did no harm. So in the previous research study children of 10 and over typically consider Margaret the naughtier child. Although Marie made a much bigger hole in her dress she was motivated by the desire to please her mother whereas Margaret may have caused less damage but did not act out of noble intentions.

The seriousness of a lie is judged in terms of betrayal of trust. It could be that they made a mistake or that this is a difference of opinion. With regard to punishment the emphasis now moves from retribution to restitution. In other words punishment should be aimed at helping the offender understand the harm s he has caused so that s he will not be motivated to repeat the offence and, wherever possible, punishment should fit the crime — say for example when a vandal is required to make good the damage s he has caused. Older children also recognise that justice in real life is an imperfect system. Sometimes the guilty get away with their crimes and sometimes the innocent suffer unfairly.

For younger children collective punishment is seen as acceptable. For example they would not disagree with a whole class being punished for the misdeeds of a single child. For the older children it is always considered wrong to punish the innocent for the misdeeds of the guilty. Overall Piaget describes the morality of the older child as an autonomous morality i. In place of the unilateral respect the younger children owed to their parents an attitude of mutual respect governs relations between peers. As such his theory here has both the strengths and weaknesses of his overall theory. Piaget uses qualitative methods observation and clinical interviews. His research is based on very small samples.

His methods are not standardised and therefore not replicable.

Redleaf Press. Namespaces Article Talk. Piaget child development stages piaget recognize that social factors were clearly important child development stages piaget necessary in development, but that what is the disengagement theory alone did child development stages piaget fully explain development. What Is Abstract Reasoning?

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