⒈ Song-christina Rossetti

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Song-christina Rossetti

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♪ 《歌》 張艾嘉、劉文正• SONG - poem by Christina Rossetti ♫ • *♥

Rossetti sat for several of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's paintings. In , she sat for the Virgin Mary in his first completed oil painting, The Girlhood of Mary Virgin , and the first work he inscribed with the initials "PRB", later revealed as standing for the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. A line from her poem "Who shall deliver me? In she again became seriously ill with depression, and around had a major religious crisis. From Rossetti began writing out and dating her poems. Most of them imitated her favoured poets. In she began experimenting with verse forms such as sonnets , hymns and ballads , while drawing narratives from the Bible, folk tales and the lives of saints.

Her early pieces often meditate on death and loss in the Romantic tradition. Rossetti's more critical reflections on the artistic movement her brother had begun were expressed in an poem "In the Artist's Studio". Here she reflects on seeing multiple paintings of the same model. Rossetti's prime collection, Goblin Market and Other Poems , appeared in , when she was It was widely praised by critics and placed her as the foremost female poet of the day. Gerard Manley Hopkins , Algernon Swinburne and Tennyson lauded her, [12] and on the death of Elizabeth Barrett Browning in she was named as her natural successor.

Rossetti worked voluntarily in — at the St Mary Magdalene house of charity in Highgate , a refuge for ex-prostitutes. It is suggested that Goblin Market may have been inspired by "fallen women" she came to know. Rossetti maintained a large circle of friends and correspondents and continued to write and publish for the rest of her life, focusing mainly on devotional writing and children's poetry. In , she wrote The Face of the Deep , a book of devotional prose, and oversaw production of an enlarged edition of Sing-Song in Song When I am dead, my dearest, Sing no sad songs for me; Plant thou no roses at my head, Nor shady cypress tree: Be the green grass above me With showers and dewdrops wet: And if thou wilt, remember, And if thou wilt, forget.

I shall not see the shadows, I shall not feel the rain; I shall not hear the nightingale Sing on as if in pain: And dreaming through the twilight That doth not rise nor set, Haply I may remember, And haply may forget. In the later decades of her life, Rossetti suffered from a type of hyperthyroidism — Graves' disease — diagnosed in , suffering a near-fatal attack in the early s. The tumour was removed, but there was a recurrence in September Christina Rossetti died on 29 December and was buried on New Year's Day in the family grave on the west side of Highgate Cemetery.

Her brother William was also buried there in , as were the ashes of four subsequent family members. Although Rossetti's popularity in her lifetime did not approach that of her contemporary Elizabeth Barrett Browning , her standing remained strong after her death. Her popularity faded in the early 20th century in the wake of Modernism , but scholars began to explore Freudian themes in her work, such as religious and sexual repression , reaching for personal, biographical interpretations of her poetry. Feminists held her as symbol of constrained female genius and placed her as a leader of 19th-century poets.

The year stood at its equinox, And bluff the North was blowing. A bleat of lambs came from the flocks, Green hardy things were growing. I met a maid with shining locks, Where milky kine were lowing. She wore a kerchief on her neck, Her bare arm showed its dimple. Her apron spread without a speck, Her air was frank and simple. Rossetti's Christmas poem " In the Bleak Midwinter " became widely known in the English-speaking world after her death, when it was set as a Christmas carol, first by Gustav Holst and later by Harold Darke.

In , as one of many Millennium projects across the country, a poetry stone was placed in what had been the grounds of North Hill House in Frome. The title of J. Christina Rossetti is commemorated in the Church of England calendar on 27 April. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English poet, — Gabriele Rossetti Frances Polidori. Ancestors of Christina Rossetti 8. Giuseppe Rossetti 4. Nicola Rossetti 9. Teresa Bosco [39] 2. Gabriele Rossetti Donato Pietro di Cola Giacinto Pietrocola Nella di Santo Buono [40] Domenico Pietrocola Lucrezia De Rosa [40] Pietro Pietrocola 5. Maria Francesca Pietrocola Domenica Miscione [40] 1.

Christina Rossetti Agostino Ansano Polidori 6. Gaetano Polidori Teresa Cosci [41] 3. Frances Polidori John Pierce 7. Anna Maria Pierce Mary Pierce. Retrieved 15 October Retrieved 2 June Encyclopedia Britannica. Penguin Classics. Rodopi Press, p. Kindle Edition. Bell, Christina's father reportedly always spoke Italian at home, therefore Christina became bilingual. Mackenzie Bell credits her exposure to the Italian language gave her a lyrical voice in her writings. The preoccupation with death that emerges in her earlies poetry is in part a reflection of the Romantic literature of writers like Maturin and Keats, whose poems were among her favourites throughout her life. But this theme was also no doubt linked to the ill health she began suffering in Her brother William reported that the family feared for her life during her youth, and many of her early manuscripts are written in the hand of her sister.

The cause of Rossetti's illness during this time is not entirely clear, encompassing heart trouble, fainting fits, andaemia, and what appears to be a kind of nervous exhaustion. Like many others of her generation, Rossetti was influenced by the Oxford Movement, which aimed to revive the High Church traditions of the Anglican church, moving it closer to Catholic observances and rituals. Rossetti was deeply interested in many of the saints, observed fast days, followed the liturgical calendar, wrote a number of devotional prose books under the auspices of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge SPCK and lived an exemplary moral, almost nun-like existence, caring for her mother and aunts until late in her life.

For many critics, this depth of devotion was a limiting factor, contributing, along with her ill health, to what they considered to be a 'morbid' strain in her poetry and constricting what might otherwise have been a string of Goblin Markets - richly imaginative, surprisingly sensual and innovative, informal verse. That they were her most trusted critics points to a largeness of spirit not usually associated with a religiously restricted sensibility.

They were critical of Raphael and of the nineteenth-century academy painting it wa felt derived from him. The Pre-Raphaelites esposed fidelity to nature, creating works of art often characterized by implicit narratives and symbolic imagery. Rossetti, although a young woman and therefore excluded from the late-night meetings in Hunt's studio, nevertheless associated herself with their work.

Sales, however, were disappointing. A Collected Poems was issued in All of these volumes had American editions and her reputation in the United States began to grow. After a sustained burst of creativity in the late s, she mainly wrote occasional works, often donating poems to Christian charities such as the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge and the Anti-Vivisectionist League of which she was a passionate supporter. Her writing after was chiefly devotional: daily collects, scriptural commentaries, improving tales for children, and memorial poems. Her attitude to her own work in her dealings with publishers and critics was quietly professional, though her correspondence with her publisher Alexander Macmillan, like her response to Gabriel's criticisms, was not at all subdued.

Style of Writing : "The emotion of Rossetti's lines is almost always in dialogue with a meaning on another level that is partially created through allusions. The enacted emotion may be one of despair, for example; but the despair may be worded so as to echo a Bible verse that offers a promise of hope. While we feel the speaker's present sorrow, we know, because the allusion reminds us, that there is another reality larger than the sorrow we are feeling. For example, the Proverbs verse 'Hope deferred maketh the heart sick' is echoed in at least sixteen of Rossetti's poems.

On its face, the phrase 'hope deferred' alludes to disappointment and, perhaps, depression. But this phrase is shadowed by the second half of the verse, which Rossetti seldom quotes directly. The entire verse reads: 'Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. She wrote a number of poems based on contemporary political events and actively campaigned against cruelty to animals. Best Known Work: Goblin Market.

In Christina Rossetti's case her pious scrupulousness seems at odds with the heartfelt emotion expressed in her poetry. Later twentieth-century biographers, however, have tended to make more intimate moves and have sought to decode the writings in terms of a personal romantic disappointment. And so Lona Mosk Packer's biography puts forward the theory that the poetry was conceived around the poet's passionate, unrequited love for the painter William Bell Scott, a family friend.

Georgina Battiscombe, in Christina Rossetti: a Divided Life , presents her interpretation of a woman torn between religious observance and artistic rebellion. In her biography Frances Thomas suggests that her collapses were, in fact, periods of insanity whose recurrence she dreaded and which led to her circumscribed life. Most controversially, perhaps, Jan Marsh's Christina Rossetti: a Literary Biography presents her belief that the breakdown in and the strange imagery in some of the stories and poems was possibly due to sexual abuse by her father, when as a teenager she was left to look after him alone.

The growth of her reputation is well illustrated by her increased representation in anthologies of Victorian poetry published throughout the twentieth century. Christina Rossetti The information on this page is a biographical sketch for Christina Rossetti; offering the reader a basic knowledge of her life and work. Gabriel Charles Dante later he changed his name to Dante Gabriel. He was a poet and a painter. William Michael "became a critic, a biographer and an editor of the poems and letters of his more celebrated siblings.

William was also the editor and poetry reviewer for the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood's literary magazine entitled: The Germ. Bell, 13 Christina's father reportedly always spoke Italian at home, therefore Christina became bilingual. Bell, Influences : "The poems of Rossetti's adolescence include many short lyrics with themes of love and death as well as monologues based on characters from the Gothic novels of one of her favourite authors, Charles Maturin. Recommended Resources. Battiscombe, Georgina. Christina Rossetti: A Divided Life. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Bell, Mackenzie.

Boston: Roberts Brothers, Charles, Edna Kotin. Christina Rossetti: Critical Perspectives, Harrison, Antony H.

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