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The body's response to physical attractiveness is automatic, and neither the character of the person desired nor one's own choice is a factor. With a combination of scientific detachment and ironic humor, Lucretius treats the human sex drive as muta cupido , "dumb desire", comparing the physiological response of ejaculation to the blood spurting from a wound. Lucretius thus expresses an Epicurean ambivalence toward sexuality, which threatens one's peace of mind with agitation if desire becomes a form of bondage and torment,  but his view of female sexuality is less negative.
Having analyzed the sex act, Lucretius then considers conception and what in modern terms would be called genetics. Both man and woman, he says, produce genital fluids that mingle in a successful procreative act. The characteristics of the child are formed by the relative proportions of the mother's "seed" to the father's. A child who most resembles its mother is born when the female seed dominates the male's, and vice versa; when neither the male nor female seed dominates, the child will have traits of both mother and father evenly. Lucretius' purpose is to correct ignorance and to give the knowledge necessary for managing one's sex life rationally. In early Stoicism among the Greeks , sex was regarded as a good , if enjoyed between people who maintained the principles of respect and friendship; in the ideal society, sex should be enjoyed freely, without bonds of marriage that treated the partner as property.
Some Greek Stoics privileged same-sex relations between a man and a younger male partner   see " Pederasty in ancient Greece ". However, stoics in the Roman Imperial era departed from the view of human beings as "communally sexual animals"  and emphasized sex within marriage,  which as an institution helped sustain social order. Roman-era Stoics such as Seneca and Musonius Rufus , both active about years after Lucretius, emphasized "sex unity" over the polarity of the sexes.
Dimorphism exists, according to Musonius, simply to create difference, and difference in turn creates the desire for a complementary relationship, that is, a couple who will bond for life for the sake of each other and for their children. Both Musonius and Seneca criticized the double standard , cultural and legal, that granted Roman men greater sexual freedom than women. The argument, then, is not that sexual freedom is a human good, but that men as well as women should exercise sexual restraint. Musonius disapproved of same-sex relations because they lacked a procreative purpose. Although Seneca is known primarily as a Stoic philosopher, he draws on Neopythagoreanism for his views on sexual austerity.
The only justification for sex is reproduction within marriage. The philosophical view of the body as a corpse that carries around the soul  could result in outright contempt for sexuality: the emperor and Stoic philosopher Marcus Aurelius writes, "as for sexual intercourse, it is the friction of a piece of gut and, following a sort of convulsion, the expulsion of some mucus". Stoic sexual ethics are grounded in their physics and cosmology. The elements derive from the semina , "seeds," that are generated by heaven; "love" brings together the elements in the act of creation, like the sexual union of male and female.
During the Republic, a Roman citizen's political liberty libertas was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion, including both corporal punishment and sexual abuse. It was expected and socially acceptable for a freeborn Roman man to want sex with both female and male partners, as long as he took the dominating role. In the Imperial era, anxieties about the loss of political liberty and the subordination of the citizen to the emperor were expressed by a perceived increase in passive homosexual behavior among free men, accompanied by a documentable increase in the execution and corporal punishment of citizens.
The poet Ennius ca. The toga , by contrast, distinguished the body of the sexually privileged adult Roman male. Romans who competed in the Olympic Games presumably followed the Greek custom of nudity, but athletic nudity at Rome has been dated variously, possibly as early as the introduction of Greek-style games in the 2nd century BC but perhaps not regularly till the time of Nero around 60 AD.
Public nudity might be offensive or distasteful even in traditional settings; Cicero derides Mark Antony as undignified for appearing near-naked as a participant in the Lupercalia , even though it was ritually required. Negative connotations of nudity include defeat in war, since captives were stripped, and slavery, since slaves for sale were often displayed naked.
The disapproval of nudity was thus less a matter of trying to suppress inappropriate sexual desire than of dignifying and marking the citizen's body. The influence of Greek art, however, led to "heroic" nude portrayals of Roman men and gods, a practice that began in the 2nd century BC. When statues of Roman generals nude in the manner of Hellenistic kings first began to be displayed, they were shocking not simply because they exposed the male figure, but because they evoked concepts of royalty and divinity that were contrary to Republican ideals of citizenship as embodied by the toga.
In art produced under Augustus, the programmatic adoption of Hellenistic and Neo-Attic style led to more complex signification of the male body shown nude, partially nude, or costumed in a muscle cuirass. One exception to public nudity was the baths , though attitudes toward nude bathing also changed over time. In the 2nd century BC, Cato preferred not to bathe in the presence of his son, and Plutarch implies that for Romans of these earlier times it was considered shameful for mature men to expose their bodies to younger males. Roman sexuality as framed by Latin literature has been described as phallocentric. It was used as an amulet fascinum , many examples of which survive, particularly in the form of wind chimes tintinnabula.
The outsized phallus of Roman art was associated with the god Priapus , among others. It was laughter-provoking, grotesque, or used for magical purposes. The poetry collection called the Priapea deals with phallic sexuality, including poems spoken in the person of Priapus. In one, for instance, Priapus threatens anal rape against any potential thief. The wrath of Priapus might cause impotence, or a state of perpetual arousal with no means of release: one curse of Priapus upon a thief was that he might lack women or boys to relieve him of his erection, and burst. There are approximately recorded Latin terms and metaphors for the penis, with the largest category treating the male member as an instrument of aggression, a weapon.
Verpa , by contrast, was "an emotive and highly offensive word" for the penis with its foreskin drawn back, as the result of an erection, excessive sexual activity, or circumcision. The penis might also be referred to as the "vein" vena , "tail" penis or cauda , or "tendon" nervus. Later, penis becomes the standard word in polite Latin, as used for example by the scholiast to Juvenal and by Arnobius , but did not pass into usage among the Romance languages. The apparent connection between Latin testes , "testicles," and testis , plural testes , "witness" the origin of English "testify" and "testimony"  may lie in archaic ritual. Some ancient Mediterranean cultures swore binding oaths upon the male genitalia, symbolizing that "the bearing of false witness brings a curse upon not only oneself, but one's house and future line".
To Romans and Greeks, castration and circumcision were linked as barbaric mutilations of the male genitalia. During the Republican period , a Lex Cornelia prohibited various kinds of mutilation, including castration. The emperor Nero had his freedman Sporus castrated, and married him in a public ceremony. By the end of the 1st century AD, bans against castration had been enacted by the emperors Domitian and Nerva in the face of a burgeoning trade in eunuch slaves. Sometime between and AD, Hadrian seems to have temporarily banned circumcision, on pain of death.
A medical procedure known as epispasm , which consisted of both surgical and non-surgical methods,    existed in ancient Rome and Greece to restore the foreskin and cover the glans "for the sake of decorum". Too-frequent ejaculation was thought to weaken men. Greek medical theories based on the classical elements and humors recommended limiting the production of semen by means of cooling, drying, and astringent therapies, including cold baths and the avoidance of flatulence-causing foods. It is not at all surprising that those who are less moderate sexually turn out to be weaker, since the whole body loses the purest part of both substances, and there is besides an accession of pleasure, which by itself is enough to dissolve the vital tone, so that before now some persons have died from excess of pleasure.
The uncontrolled dispersing of pneuma in semen could lead to loss of physical vigor, mental acuity, masculinity, and a strong manly voice,  a complaint registered also in the Priapea. Pliny reports that:. When plates of lead are bound to the area of the loins and kidneys, it is used, owing to its rather cooling nature, to check the attacks of sexual desire and sexual dreams in one's sleep that cause spontaneous eruptions to the point of becoming a sort of disease. With these plates the orator Calvus is reported to have restrained himself and to have preserved his body's strength for the labor of his studies. Lead plates, cupping therapy , and hair removal were prescribed for three sexual disorders thought to be related to nocturnal emissions: satyriasis, or hypersexuality ; priapism , a chronic erection without an accompanying desire for sex; and the involuntary discharge of semen seminis lapsus or seminis effusio.
Effeminacy was a favorite accusation in Roman political invective, and was aimed particularly at populares , the politicians of the faction who represented themselves as champions of the people, sometimes called Rome's "democratic" party in contrast to the optimates , a conservative elite of nobles. Perhaps the most notorious incident of cross-dressing in ancient Rome occurred in 62 BC, when Clodius Pulcher intruded on annual rites of the Bona Dea that were restricted to women only. The rites were held at a senior magistrate 's home, in this year that of Julius Caesar, nearing the end of his term as praetor and only recently invested as Pontifex Maximus.
Clodius disguised himself as a female musician to gain entrance, as described in a "verbal striptease" by Cicero, who prosecuted him for sacrilege incestum : . Take away his saffron dress, his tiara, his girly shoes and purple laces, his bra, his Greek harp , take away his shameless behavior and his sex crime, and Clodius is suddenly revealed as a democrat. The actions of Clodius, who had just been elected quaestor and was probably about to turn thirty, are often regarded as a last juvenile prank. The all-female nature of these nocturnal rites attracted much prurient speculation from men; they were fantasized as drunken lesbian orgies that might be fun to watch.
The scandal prompted Caesar to seek an immediate divorce to control the damage to his own reputation, giving rise to the famous line "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion". The incident "summed up the disorder of the final years of the republic". In addition to political invective, cross-dressing appears in Roman literature and art as a mythological trope as in the story of Hercules and Omphale exchanging roles and attire ,  religious investiture , and rarely or ambiguously as transvestic fetishism.
A section of the Digest by Ulpian  categorizes Roman clothing on the basis of who may appropriately wear it; a man who wore women's clothes, Ulpian notes, would risk making himself the object of scorn. A fragment from the playwright Accius —86 BC seems to refer to a father who secretly wore "virgin's finery". Gender ambiguity was a characteristic of the priests of the goddess Cybele known as Galli , whose ritual attire included items of women's clothing. They are sometimes considered a transgender priesthood, since they were required to be castrated in imitation of Attis.
The complexities of gender identity in the religion of Cybele and the Attis myth are explored by Catullus in one of his longest poems, Carmen Roman men were free to have sex with males of lower status without a perceived loss of masculinity, or even as an enhancement of it. However, those who took the receiving role in sex acts, sometimes referred to as the "passive" or "submissive" role, were disparaged as weak and effeminate, regardless of the sex of their partner see the section below on cunnilungus and fellatio ,  while having sex with males in the active position was proof of one's masculinity. Laws such as the poorly understood Lex Scantinia and various pieces of Augustan moral legislation were meant to restrict same-sex activity among freeborn males, viewed as threatening a man's status and independence as a citizen.
Latin had such a wealth of words for men outside the masculine norm that some scholars  argue for the existence of a homosexual subculture at Rome; that is, although the noun "homosexual" has no straightforward equivalent in Latin, literary sources reveal a pattern of behaviors among a minority of free men that indicate same-sex preference or orientation. Some terms, such as exoletus , specifically refer to an adult; Romans who were socially marked as "masculine" did not confine their same-sex penetration of male prostitutes or slaves to those who were "boys" under the age of And some older men may have at times preferred the passive role with a same age or younger partner, though this was socially frowned upon.
Homoerotic Latin literature includes the "Juventius" poems of Catullus ,  elegies by Tibullus  and Propertius ,  the second Eclogue of Vergil , and several poems by Horace. Lucretius addresses the love of boys in De rerum natura 4. The poet Martial , despite being married to a woman, often derides women as sexual partners, and celebrates the charms of pueri boys.
Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Same-sex weddings are reported by sources that mock them; the feelings of the participants are not recorded. Apart from measures to protect the liberty of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab , a sympathizer of the Christian faith. By the end of the 4th century, passive homosexuality under the Christian Empire was punishable by burning.
Men who had been raped were exempt from the loss of legal or social standing infamia suffered by males who prostituted themselves or willingly took the receiving role in sex. Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a male of same-sex orientation. Although a man who had worked as a prostitute could not be raped as a matter of law, it was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable famosus and questionable suspiciosus " had the same right as other free men not to have his body subjected to forced sex.
In his collection of twelve anecdotes dealing with assaults on chastity, the historian Valerius Maximus features male victims in equal number to female. The Roman soldier, like any free and respectable Roman male of status, was expected to show self-discipline in matters of sex. Soldiers convicted of adultery were given a dishonorable discharge ; convicted adulterers were barred from enlisting.
Strict commanders might ban prostitutes and pimps from camp,  though in general the Roman army , whether on the march or at a permanent fort castrum , was attended by a number of camp followers who might include prostitutes. Their presence seems to have been taken for granted, and mentioned mainly when it became a problem;  for instance, when Scipio Aemilianus was setting out for Numantia in BC, he dismissed the camp followers as one of his measures for restoring discipline. Perhaps most peculiar is the prohibition against marriage in the Imperial army.
In the early period, Rome had an army of citizens who left their families and took up arms as the need arose. During the expansionism of the Middle Republic , Rome began acquiring vast territories to be defended as provinces, and during the time of Gaius Marius d. The ban on marriage began under Augustus ruled 27 BC—14 AD , perhaps to discourage families from following the army and impairing its mobility. The marriage ban applied to all ranks up to the centurionate ; men of the governing classes were exempt. By the 2nd century AD, the stability of the Empire kept most units in permanent forts, where attachments with local women often developed.
Although legally these unions could not be formalized as marriages, their value in providing emotional support for the soldiers was recognized. After a soldier was discharged, the couple were granted the right of legal marriage as citizens conubium , and any children they already had were considered to have been born to citizens. Other forms of sexual gratification available to soldiers were the use of male slaves , war rape , and same-sex relations.
Polybius 2nd century BC reports that same-sex activity in the military was punishable by the fustuarium , clubbing to death. A soldier maintained his masculinity by not allowing his body to be used for sexual purposes. This physical integrity stood in contrast to the limits placed on his actions as a free man within the military hierarchy; most strikingly, Roman soldiers were the only citizens regularly subjected to corporal punishment, reserved in the civilian world mainly for slaves. Sexual integrity helped distinguish the status of the soldier, who otherwise sacrificed a great deal of his civilian autonomy, from that of the slave. An incident related by Plutarch in his biography of Marius illustrates the soldier's right to maintain his sexual integrity.
A good-looking young recruit named Trebonius  had been sexually harassed over a period of time by his superior officer, who happened to be Marius's nephew, Gaius Luscius. One night, having fended off unwanted advances on numerous occasions, Trebonius was summoned to Luscius's tent. Unable to disobey the command of his superior, he found himself the object of a sexual assault and drew his sword, killing Luscius. A conviction for killing an officer typically resulted in execution. When brought to trial, he was able to produce witnesses to show that he had repeatedly had to fend off Luscius, and "had never prostituted his body to anyone, despite offers of expensive gifts".
Marius not only acquitted Trebonius in the killing of his kinsman, but gave him a crown for bravery. During wartime, the violent use of war captives for sex was not considered criminal rape. Mass rape occurred in some circumstances, and is likely to be underreported in the surviving sources, but was not a deliberate or pervasive strategy for controlling a population. In territories and provinces brought under treaty with Rome, soldiers who committed rape against the local people might be subjected to harsher punishments than civilians.
Because of the Roman emphasis on family, female sexuality was regarded as one of the bases for social order and prosperity. Female citizens were expected to exercise their sexuality within marriage, and were honored for their sexual integrity pudicitia and fecundity: Augustus granted special honors and privileges to women who had given birth to three children see " Ius trium liberorum ". Control of female sexuality was regarded as necessary for the stability of the state, as embodied most conspicuously in the absolute virginity of the Vestals.
As was the case for men, free women who displayed themselves sexually, such as prostitutes and performers, or who made themselves available indiscriminately were excluded from legal protections and social respectability. Many Roman literary sources approve of respectable women exercising sexual passion within marriage. Roman attitudes toward female nudity differed from but were influenced by those of the Greeks, who idealized the male body in the nude while portraying respectable women clothed. Partial nudity of goddesses in Roman Imperial art, however, can highlight the breasts as dignified but pleasurable images of nurturing, abundance, and peacefulness.
In the real world as described in literature, prostitutes sometimes displayed themselves naked at the entrance to their brothel cubicles, or wore see-through silk garments; slaves for sale were often displayed naked to allow buyers to inspect them for defects, and to symbolize that they lacked the right to control their own body. Naked she stood on the shore, at the pleasure of the purchaser; every part of her body was examined and felt. Would you hear the result of the sale? The pirate sold; the pimp bought, that he might employ her as a prostitute. The display of the female body made it vulnerable. Varro said sight was the greatest of the senses, because while the others were limited by proximity, sight could penetrate even to the stars; he thought the Latin word for "sight, gaze ", visus , was etymologically related to vis , "force, power".
But the connection between visus and vis , he said, also implied the potential for violation , just as Actaeon gazing on the naked Diana violated the goddess. The completely nude female body as portrayed in sculpture was thought to embody a universal concept of Venus, whose counterpart Aphrodite is the goddess most often depicted as a nude in Greek art. The "basic obscenity" for the female genitalia is cunnus , " cunt ", though perhaps not as strongly offensive as the English. Varro connects this usage of the word to the sacrifice of a pig to the goddess Ceres in preliminary wedding rites.
Although women's genitals appear often in invective and satiric verse as objects of disgust, they are rarely referred to in Latin love elegy. The function of the clitoris landica was "well understood". Latin lacked a standard word for labia ;  two terms found in medical writers are orae , "edges" or "shores",  and pinnacula , "little wings".
Vulva seems originally to have referred to the womb of animals, but is "extremely common" in Pliny's Natural History for a human uterus. Both women and men often removed their pubic hair,  but grooming may have varied over time and by individual preference. A fragment from the early satirist Lucilius refers to penetrating a "hairy bag",  and a graffito from Pompeii declares that "a hairy cunt is fucked much better than one which is smooth; it's steamy and wants cock". At the entrance to a caldarium in the bath complex of the House of Menander at Pompeii, an unusual graphic device appears on a mosaic: a phallic oil can is surrounded by strigils in the shape of female genitalia, juxtaposed with an "Ethiopian" water-bearer who has an "unusually large and comically detailed" penis.
Latin words for "breasts" include mammae cf. English "mammary" , papillae more specifically for "nipples" , and ubera , breasts in their capacity to provide nourishment, including the teats or udder of an animal. The breasts of a beautiful woman were supposed to be "unobtrusive. While Greek epigrams describe ideal breasts,  Latin poets take limited interest in them, at least as compared to the modern focus on admiring and fondling a woman's breasts. Because all infants were breastfed in antiquity, the breast was viewed primarily as an emblem of nurturing and of motherhood. Wrapping one's head in a bra was said to cure a headache.
Baring the breasts is one of the gestures made by women, particularly mothers or nurses, to express mourning or as an appeal for mercy. Because women were normally portrayed clothed in art, bared breasts can signify vulnerability or erotic availability by choice, accident, or force. Baring a single breast was a visual motif of Classical Greek sculpture , where among other situations, including seductions,  it often represented impending physical violence or rape.
The erogenous power of the breast was not utterly neglected: in comparing sex with a woman to sex with a boy, a Greek novel of the Roman Imperial era notes that "her breast when it is caressed provides its own particular pleasure". Greek words for a woman who prefers sex with another woman include hetairistria compare hetaira , "courtesan" or "companion" , tribas plural tribades , and Lesbia ; Latin words include the loanword tribas , fricatrix "she who rubs" , and virago. Ovid, who advocates generally for a heterosexual lifestyle, finds it "a desire known to no one, freakish, novel During the Roman Imperial era, which many Roman writers perceived as more decadent than the Republican period, sources for same-sex relations among women are more abundant, in the form of love spells, medical writing, texts on astrology and the interpretation of dreams, and other sources.
I wish I could hold to my neck and embrace the little arms, and bear kisses on the tender lips. Go on, doll, and trust your joys to the winds; believe me, light is the nature of men. An early reference to same-sex relations among women as "lesbianism" is found in Lucian 2nd century AD : "They say there are women like that in Lesbos, masculine-looking, but they don't want to give it up for men.
Instead, they consort with women, just like men. Since Romans thought a sex act required an active or dominant partner who was "phallic" see "Phallic sexuality" above , male writers imagined that in lesbian sex one of the women would use a dildo or have an exceptionally large clitoris for penetration, and that she would be the one experiencing pleasure. The rape of women is a pervasive theme in the myths and legends of early Rome. The overthrow of the Roman monarchy and the establishment of the Republic was precipitated by the rape of the much-admired Lucretia by Sextus Tarquinius , the king's son.
The legend crystallizes the Roman view of unchecked libido as a form of tyranny. The Augustan historian Livy seems "embarrassed" by the rape motif of early Roman history, and emphasizes the redeeming political dimension of these events. Roman law recognized rape as a crime: the rape victim was not guilty of anything. The laws punish the foul wickedness of those who prostitute their modesty to the lusts of others, but they do not attach blame to those who are compelled to stuprum by force, since it has, moreover, been quite properly decided that their reputations are unharmed and that they are not prohibited from marriage to others. Although literary sources from the Republican era make it clear that rape was wrong and severely penalized, the statutes under which it might be charged as a crime are unknown until passage of the Lex Iulia de vi publica , dating probably to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar in the 40s BC.
Since emancipated women were allowed to bring criminal prosecutions in the Republic,  it is conceivable that a rape victim could have brought charges against her rapist herself. Otherwise, the case could be prosecuted by her father or husband, or by anyone who saw fit to do so. There was no statute of limitations for rape; by contrast adultery , which was criminalized under Augustus , had to be prosecuted within five years. As a matter of law, rape could be committed only against a citizen in good standing.
A woman who worked as a prostitute or entertainer lost her social standing and became infamis ; by making her body publicly available, she had in effect surrendered her right to be protected from sexual abuse or physical violence. If rape against a married woman could not be proven, the Augustan legislation criminalizing adultery would make the man liable to a charge of adulterium , criminal adultery, though a charge of either adultery or stuprum without force would implicate the woman as well. Attitudes toward rape changed when the Empire became Christianized. Augustine interpreted Lucretia's suicide as a possible admission that she had secretly encouraged the rapist, [n 13] and Christian apologists regarded her as having committed the sin of involuntary sexual pleasure.
The word raptus thus could refer to a successful seduction as well as abduction or rape. If the girl consented, Constantine ordered that she be punished along with the male "abductor" by being burnt alive. If she had not consented, she was still considered an accomplice, "on the grounds that she could have saved herself by screaming for help". In the Republic and the pre-Christian Empire, the consequences of an abduction or an elopement had been up to the couple and their families.
Both male and female freeborn children wore the toga praetexta , a purple-bordered garment that marked its wearer as having "inviolable" status. Freeborn Roman boys also wore an apotropaic amulet called the bulla which incorporated a phallic talisman fascinum inside a locket of gold, silver, or bronze, or in a leather pouch. There were laws protecting freeborn children from sexual predators ,   and the rape of a freeborn boy was a capital crime; this severity was directed at protecting the integrity of the young citizen. Quintilian regards this misbehavior as a sign of general moral decline. Protections applied only to freeborn children, not those born to slaves, sold into slavery, or taken captive in war.
The social acceptance of pederasty among the Romans was focused on the exploitation of young male slaves or prostitutes by men of the upper classes. Adolescents in ritual preparation to transition to adult status wore the tunica recta , the "upright tunic", so called because it was woven ritually on the type of upright loom that was the earliest used by Romans. The puberty ritual for the young male involved shaving his first beard and taking off his bulla , which he dedicated to the household gods, the Lares. Roman women were expected to remain virgins until marriage; the higher a girl's social rank, the earlier she was likely to become betrothed and married. Weddings were often postponed until the girl was considered mature enough.
The wedding ceremony was in part a rite of passage for the bride, as Rome lacked the elaborate female puberty rituals of ancient Greece. The confining of her hair signified the harnessing of her sexuality within marriage. Her weaving of the tunica recta and the hairnet demonstrated her skill and her capacity for acting in the traditional matron's role as custos domi , "guardian of the house". Because men could enjoy sexual relations outside marriage with relative impunity, it has sometimes been assumed that satisfying sex was not an expectation of Roman marriage. Sexual intimacy between a married couple was a private matter, and not usually the subject of literature.
A wedding hymn by Catullus, for instance, praises the love goddess Venus because "nothing is possible without you". I am seized by an unbelievable longing for you. See also: How LibriVox Works. LibriVox volunteers are helpful and friendly, and if you post a question anywhere on the forum you are likely to get an answer from someone, somewhere within an hour or so. So don't be shy! Many of our volunteers have never recorded anything before LibriVox. The roles involved in making a LibriVox recording. Not all volunteers read for LibriVox.
If you would prefer not to lend your voice to LibriVox , you could lend us your ears. Proof listeners catch mistakes we may have missed during the initial recording and editing process. The more Kristen tries to keep Emily close, the more Emily questions her motives. As Emily feels the walls closing in on their cover-ups, she must reckon with the truth about her closest friend. Can Emily outrun the secrets she shares with Kristen, or will they destroy her relationship, her freedom—even her life? The Downstairs Girl.
Stacey Lee. By day, seventeen-year-old Jo Kuan works as a lady's maid for the cruel daughter of one of the wealthiest men in Atlanta. But by night, Jo moonlights as the pseudonymous author of a newspaper advice column for the genteel Southern lady, "Dear Miss Sweetie. While her opponents clamor to uncover the secret identity of Miss Sweetie, a mysterious letter sets Jo off on a search for her own past and the parents who abandoned her as a baby. But when her efforts put her in the crosshairs of Atlanta's most notorious criminal, Jo must decide whether she, a girl used to living in the shadows, is ready to step into the light. With prose that is witty, insightful, and at times heartbreaking, Stacey Lee masterfully crafts an extraordinary social drama set in the New South.
The Downstairs Girl , for all its serious and timely content, is a jolly good time. The Paper Palace: A Novel. Miranda Cowley Heller. What more could you ask? But this morning is different: last night Elle and her oldest friend Jonas crept out the back door into the darkness and had sex with each other for the first time, all while their spouses chatted away inside. As Heller colors in the experiences that have led Elle to this day, we arrive at her ultimate decision with all its complexity. Tender yet devastating, The Paper Palace considers the tensions between desire and dignity, the legacies of abuse, and the crimes and misdemeanors of families. Seven Days in June. Tia Williams. Eva Mercy is a single mom and bestselling erotica writer who is feeling pressed from all sides.
When Shane and Eva meet unexpectedly at a literary event, sparks fly, raising not only their buried traumas, but the eyebrows of the Black literati. What no one knows is that fifteen years earlier, teenage Eva and Shane spent one crazy, torrid week madly in love. While they may be pretending not to know each other, they can't deny their chemistry—or the fact that they've been secretly writing to each other in their books through the years.
Over the next seven days, amidst a steamy Brooklyn summer, Eva and Shane reconnect—but Eva's wary of the man who broke her heart, and wants him out of the city so her life can return to normal. Before Shane disappears though, she needs a few questions answered Tokyo Ever After: A Novel. Emiko Jean. Which means outspoken, irreverent Izzy is literally a princess. In a whirlwind, Izumi travels to Japan to meet the father she never knew and discover the country she always dreamed of. There are conniving cousins, a hungry press, a scowling but handsome bodyguard who just might be her soulmate, and thousands of years of tradition and customs to learn practically overnight.
Will Izumi crumble under the weight of the crown, or will she live out her fairy tale, happily ever after? Look for the sequel, Tokyo Dreaming , in ! Laura Dave. Before Owen Michaels disappears, he smuggles a note to his beloved wife of one year: Protect her. Bailey, who lost her mother tragically as a child. Bailey, who wants absolutely nothing to do with her new stepmother. Hannah and Bailey set out to discover the truth.
With its breakneck pacing, dizzying plot twists, and evocative family drama, The Last Thing He Told Me is a riveting mystery, certain to shock you with its final, heartbreaking turn. Northern Spy: A Novel. Flynn Berry. I loved this thrill ride of a book. The IRA may have gone underground in the two decades since the Good Friday Agreement, but they never really went away, and lately bomb threats, security checkpoints, and helicopters floating ominously over the city have become features of everyday life. As the news reporter requests the public's help in locating those responsible for the robbery, security footage reveals Tessa's sister, Marian, pulling a black ski mask over her face.
The police believe Marian has joined the IRA, but Tessa is convinced she must have been abducted or coerced; the sisters have always opposed the violence enacted in the name of uniting Ireland. And besides, Marian is vacationing on the north coast. Tessa just spoke to her yesterday. When the truth about Marian comes to light, Tessa is faced with impossible choices that will test the limits of her ideals, the bonds of her family, her notions of right and wrong, and her identity as a sister and a mother.
Walking an increasingly perilous road, she wants nothing more than to protect the one person she loves more fiercely than her sister: her infant son, Finn. Riveting, atmospheric, and exquisitely written, Northern Spy is at once a heart-pounding story of the contemporary IRA and a moving portrait of sister- and motherhood, and of life in a deeply divided society. Infinite Country: A Novel. Patricia Engel. I often wonder if we are living the wrong life in the wrong country. Talia is being held at a correctional facility for adolescent girls in the forested mountains of Colombia after committing an impulsive act of violence that may or may not have been warranted.
If she misses her flight, she might also miss her chance to finally be reunited with her family. How this family came to occupy two different countries, two different worlds, comes into focus like twists of a kaleidoscope. Award-winning, internationally acclaimed author Patricia Engel, herself a dual citizen and the daughter of Colombian immigrants, gives voice to all five family members as they navigate the particulars of their respective circumstances. Firekeeper's Daughter. Angeline Boulley. Eighteen-year-old Daunis Fontaine has never quite fit in, both in her hometown and on the nearby Ojibwe reservation. She dreams of a fresh start at college, but when family tragedy strikes, Daunis puts her future on hold to look after her fragile mother. Yet even as Daunis falls for Jamie, she senses the dashing hockey star is hiding something.
Everything comes to light when Daunis witnesses a shocking murder, thrusting her into an FBI investigation of a lethal new drug. Reluctantly, Daunis agrees to go undercover, drawing on her knowledge of chemistry and Ojibwe traditional medicine to track down the source. But the search for truth is more complicated than Daunis imagined, exposing secrets and old scars. At the same time, she grows concerned with an investigation that seems more focused on punishing the offenders than protecting the victims. SAS 62 Vengeance romaine. Tu as le choix. Ou je te castre. Pour moi, ce sera un plaisir. Tu as une minute. SAS 97 Cauchemar en Colombie. Il allait se faire lyncher. SAS 93 Visa pour Cuba.
Comment se faire des amis. Dale Carnegie. La liste de mes envies. La vie mode d'emploi. Georges Perec. Find your next favorite book. Midnight Sun. Stephenie Meyer. But until now, fans have heard only Bella's side of the story. At last, readers can experience Edward's version in the long-awaited companion novel, Midnight Sun. This unforgettable tale as told through Edward's eyes takes on a new and decidedly dark twist.
Meeting Bella is both the most unnerving and intriguing event he has experienced in all his years as a vampire. As we learn more fascinating details about Edward's past and the complexity of his inner thoughts, we understand why this is the defining struggle of his life. How can he justify following his heart if it means leading Bella into danger? In Midnight Sun , Stephenie Meyer transports us back to a world that has captivated millions of readers and brings us an epic novel about the profound pleasures and devastating consequences of immortal love.
Battle Ground. Harry has faced terrible odds before. He has a long history of fighting enemies above his weight class. The Red Court of vampires. The fallen angels of the Order of the Blackened Denarius. The Outsiders. A being more powerful and dangerous on an order of magnitude beyond what the world has seen in a millennium is coming. The Last Titan has declared war on the city of Chicago, and has come to subjugate humanity, obliterating any who stand in her way. Mark Manson. Dune: Volume 1. Livre 1. Coveted across the known universe, melange is a prize worth killing for A stunning blend of adventure and mysticism, environmentalism and politics, Dune won the first Nebula Award, shared the Hugo Award, and formed the basis of what is undoubtedly the grandest epic in science fiction.
Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Turning the envelope over, his hand trembling, Harry saw a purple wax seal bearing a coat of arms; a lion, an eagle, a badger and a snake surrounding a large letter 'H'. Harry Potter has never even heard of Hogwarts when the letters start dropping on the doormat at number four, Privet Drive. Addressed in green ink on yellowish parchment with a purple seal, they are swiftly confiscated by his grisly aunt and uncle. Then, on Harry's eleventh birthday, a great beetle-eyed giant of a man called Rubeus Hagrid bursts in with some astonishing news: Harry Potter is a wizard, and he has a place at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry.
An incredible adventure is about to begin! Having now become classics of our time, the Harry Potter ebooks never fail to bring comfort and escapism to readers of all ages. With its message of hope, belonging and the enduring power of truth and love, the story of the Boy Who Lived continues to delight generations of new readers. After We Collided. The inspiration behind the major motion picture After We Collided! Tessa has everything to lose. Hardin has nothing to lose Life will never be the same. After a tumultuous beginning to their relationship, Tessa and Hardin were on the path to making things work.
Hardin will always be But is he really the deep, thoughtful guy Tessa fell madly in love with despite his angry exterior, or has he been a stranger all along? She wishes she could walk away. Not with the memory of passionate nights spent in his arms. His electric touch. His hungry kisses. She put so much on hold for Hardin—school, friends, her mom, a relationship with a guy who really loved her, and now possibly even a promising new career.This aspect of the matter is pointed up clearly by the Bill Odyssey Argumentative Essay of Louis XI's reforms in France, Jing Mei Woo In Amy Tans The Joy Luck Club the per-capita child development stages piaget approximately doubled during his reign. The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House ought to absolutely promote the establishment of abortion institutes. Hauser, Tim By increasing the The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House of a society, Character Analysis: Slide The Corner capita and per square kilometer, we The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House not only its military potentials, but its general strength in depth in other The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House respects. The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House a The Aristotelian Elements Of Spectacle In A Dolls House woman, no infidelity was acceptable, and first-time brides were expected to be virgins.