⚡ Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce
They were Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce with buckets, which they Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce to use as toilets. Bridge over the Magech River near Gondar Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce, The region was finally conquered and converted by neighbouring Islamic powers ca. Muslim merchant-scholars Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce played an important role in Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce kingdoms as advisors and scribes in Ghana. Large estates belonged to nobles. Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce led his army from Iberia to Italy via the The Joads Family Identity In The Grapes Of Wrath.
Transformations in Europe, 1500-1750
In the Sahara Desert region, the people develop the use of pottery and use it for tools and dishes. Agriculture develops in the Middle East with focus on barley and wheat. The domestication of sheep, goats and cattle precede the agricultural revolution. The animals started to be used for meat, milk and transportation for the people. Later, donkeys also become domesticated, later spreading the practice to southwest Asia. The continent is hit by a dry phase, drying up the Sahara region and causing the population that settled there to move away. Egypt is consolidated into one political entity under the pharaoh, Narmer, who is the principal administrator of the kingdom. This is regarded as the First Dynasty.
They engaged in tax collecting and the organizing of labour for major public works such as the building of irrigation systems and pyramids. Ta-Seti Nubian civilization , one of the first sacral kingdoms in the Nile is invaded by Egypt and destroyed during the First Dynasty. Smaller sacral kingdoms continued to exist but they soon became consolidated into larger kingdoms- two of which included the Kingdom of Sai and the Kingdom of Kerma. By this time, the earliest forms of literacy in the world, hieroglyphic writings of ancient Egypt are invented. The first stone pyramid in Egypt is built by an architect, Imhotep.
It was made by building several layers of stone on top of each other. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt occurs. The period spanned from the ninth to the eleventh dynasty and was marked by power divisions and civil wars. The Thebes came out victorious and reunited Egypt under one ruler, during the eleventh dynasty. Camel Profile Image Source. Herding is established in southern Kenya and Tanzania. The expansion of the Bantu people begins. Experts believe that there are approximately to Bantu languages in existence. The Nok Culture, a highly centralised community of people, is established in central Nigeria. By BC, iron-smelting had become common to the Nok and they produced art in the form of lifelike animal and human figures. Nok sculpture Louvre Image Source.
The city of Carthage is established by Phoenicians from Tyre. The region became an influential power and trading entity in the Mediterranean. The Nubian Empire begins. The Kingdom of Kush, possibly arising out of the Kingdom of Kerma which rebelled for centuries after being absorbed into the Egyptian Empire , invaded Egypt and took over Thebes. The Kushites were later expelled from Nubia by the Assyrian forces. The region later became a centre for cotton-cloth and iron manufacture. The Kushites were later expelled from Nubia by Assyrian forces. He defeats the Egyptians in battle at Pelsium in the Nile Delta. The first known treaty between Carthage and Rome is written. It outlines the limitations to their commercial activities and influence over neighbouring regions.
The treaty is the earliest record indicating that Sardinia and Sicily were under Carthaginian control. Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. He occupies Egypt and his general, Ptolemy, becomes king and finds a dynasty. During this dynasty, Greek culture was spread throughout Egypt. The Meroitic alphabet replaces Egyptian script in the influential region of Meroe. Made up of 23 characters, the alphabetic script was originally derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Djenne-Djenno, a town in current day Mali, is established. The town is one of the oldest urbanised centres known. It is associated with thriving markets and agriculture, most notably the domestication of African rice. The town is also known as being one of the earliest sites of iron production in sub-Saharan Africa.
Its territory is renamed the Roman Province of Africa. Hannibal led his army from Iberia to Italy via the Alps. By the end of the three wars, Carthage was destroyed and the remaining citizens were sold to slavery, as was the customs of the time. This was the beginning of the Roman hegemony in northern Africa. Christianity begins to take influence in Roman North Africa.
The arrival of Christianity demanded the worship of Christ in a church rather than the use of state resources to commemorate kings by their stelae. Swahili culture begins to take shape because of the interaction between the local Bantu speaking people and the Persian and Arab merchants. The culture eventually began spreading to Tanzania and Kenya and thereafter to Mozambique. Conical tower by Marius Loots Image Source. King Ezana of Aksum is converted to Christianity by two Christian traders. This begins the establishment of Ethiopian Christianity. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church provided the institutional support for the monarchy. The area of Great Zimbabwe is settled.
The Ziwa and Gokomere communities survived by farming and mining the land. The area marks the earliest Iron Age settlements known of in the region. Great Zimbabwe would later become the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and serve as the first city in Southern Africa. Ghana, the oldest Sudanic empire, is founded. The empire prospered because of the tax revenues from the trans-Saharan trade, linking Sijilmase and Tiaret to Aoudaghost.
The empire controlled access to goldfields, even though it was not involved in production. The empire also controlled access to all the salt and gold that went through its territory. The state of Aksum in Eritrea and Ethiopia begins minting its own silver and gold coins as their own Aksumite currency. The region was deeply involved in the trade network between India and the Mediterranean. The region exported ivory, gold and agricultural products. The amaXhosa, the southernmost group of the Bantu speakers, took certain linguistic traits from the Khoisan. Vandals invade North Africa, relieving Rome of her territories in the region. Aksum also slipped into a decline because of environmental degradation and changes in the global climate. Settlers from southeast Asia and later, from the east African mainland, settle in Madagascar.
Banana and rice cultivation are introduced by the Asian settlers, while cattle and farming techniques are introduced by the Bantu speaking east Africans. Spanish Jews flee persecution under the Visigoths to North Africa, where they made their homes in the Byzantine dominated cities along the Mediterranean coast. Arab Muslims conquer Byzantine Egypt. Under the rule of the Fatimid Caliphate the country increased their cotton production and thrived economically. Minted gold coins called the Fatimid dinar were used for international trade.
Tax collection from farms proved lucrative for the Berber overlords — soldiers who had served in the Fatimid conquest — and to the caliphs of the time. During this time slave infantry was used in the military, made up of people from Sudan and Turkey. Arab Muslims have by this time conquered the entire North African region and Islam becomes the dominant religion in the region by the 10th century. Kanem is founded. Kanuri-speaking nomads founded the Sudanic Empire of Kanem, which achieved power through trans-Saharan trade. The Kingdom of Nri rises under the leadership of the Eze Nri.
Sotho - Tswana states are formed on the Highveld, south of the Limpopo River. Large towns of thousands of people made up early Tswana states north-west of the Vaal River, with settlers leaving to start their own states over time. Indian and Arab trade settlement begins in northern Madagascar to take advantage of the Indian Ocean trade. Islam was introduced by the traders. Approximately Arab Egyptian nomads settle in Maghreb, spreading the Arab languages and contributing to the decline of the Berber language. Berber soldiers revolt after tax revenue from farms is diminished.
Their violent resistance destabilised the power of the Fatimid caliphs and slowed trade in the region. Early ironworks are used in what is currently known as Kwa-Zulu Natal. The first state in Southern Africa, the Kingdom of Mapungubwe , arises. The Kingdom attained its wealth from ivory, copper and gold trade with Swahili merchants. Though Mapungubwe was abandoned by the middle of the following century, it formed part of a development that would eventually lead to the creation of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe in the 13th century. This kingdom, along with a few others, was predecessors to the powerful Empire of Ashanti which rose in the 18th century.
This Islamic dynasty ran for years eventually losing the throne in Abd al-Mu'min forms the Almohad Empire after declaring jihad on the Almoravids and uniting the northern Berbers against them. Maghreb sees the establishment of mathematics and literacy, as well as the development of algebra. European crusaders threaten Fatimid in Egypt, leading to the rise of a Kurdish general, who became well-known for the impressive defence he and his army provided for Muslims. Saladin becomes ruler of Egypt and the Ayyubid Dynasty begins. Sunni Islam is reinstated in the region and people from Turkey and southern Russia are increasingly brought in as Mamluk slaves to fulfil the military infantry needs. Cairo becomes an important centre of Islamic learning.
Islam slowly became introduced to the region by Sufist Fakirs. The kingdom of Zimbabwe is established. During the 13th century the Kingdom would construct a series of large stone structures in its capital of Great Zimbabwe. Great Zimbabwe seizes control of the Indian Ocean trade and the wealth it produced from its gold supply. The Empire of Ghana comes to an end when its capital is seized by Takrur, in northern Senegal. The empire of Mali is established.
The Great Mosque is considered one of the most important centres of learning in medieval Africa. Mamluk slaves in Egypt have landed aristocracy with significant power. They succeed in establishing their own, Mamluk dynasty after overthrowing the Ayyubid Dynasty. Their military dictatorship controlled Egypt for years. Egypt had come to be known as a protector of Islam and of Mecca and Medina. Sakura, a freed slave, usurps the throne to the Mali Empire. Sakura becomes the sixth Mansa of Mali. New conquests such as Gao were made under his rule. Through him, the dynasty of Kongolo, which was later ousted by Kalala Ilunga, was founded. The Luba political system, which spread to other parts of Central Africa , western Congo , southern Uganda , Zambia , Zimbabwe , Mali , Burundi and Rwanda , utilised a system of spiritual kings with direct spiritual access to ancestral spirits.
The balopwe, or system of spiritual kings mulopwe maintained power through spiritual strength rather than military authority. The Buganda Kingdom was founded by the Baganda or Ganda people whose ancestors may have migrated northwest of Lake Victoria years prior. Mansa Musa, the tenth mansa or emperor of the Kingdom of Mali, makes a pilgrimage to Mecca with a large cavalry which included slaves and animals, all carrying gold which was distributed along the way to Mecca. Musa rectified the damage caused by borrowing excessive amounts of gold from money-lenders at high interest, marking the only occasion during which a single individual controlled the gold prices in the Mediterranean.
Mansa Musa ruler of the empire of Mali cements the University of Sankore as an institution of learning. At its apex, it housed one of the largest libraries in the world, with between , and , manuscripts. After a long period of internal and external struggle and several disputed successions, the Kanem Empire ceases to exist. The final death knell occurs when the remnants of the Empire is conquered by the Bulala people from Lake Fitri, in modern day Chad. The empire was ruled by the Sefuwa dynasty, which continued to rule the Bornu state until CE, and is counted as the longest ruling dynasty in Africa. The kingdom of Kongo is established in central Africa by the Bakongo peoples.
The capital, M'banza Kongo, was at its height inhabited by about , people. It was one of the largest cities of Sub-Saharan Africa. Trading relationships were established between Somalia and Malacca. The main trading commodities were porcelain, cloth, and ambergris. With the trade of wild animals and incense to the Ming Empire in China, Somali merchants were the leading merchants operating between Africa and Asia. This dramatically impacted the course of Sub-Saharan history, especially in the case of agriculture see The Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages.
Since agriculture was the key prerequisite to urbanization , most of Sub-Saharan Africa did not experience the rise of cities until the medieval or modern periods. Civilization in Sub-Saharan Africa began in the land of Nubia , which denotes the region around the segment of the Nile River in northern Sudan and southernmost Egypt. Nubia was the southern neighbour of ancient Egypt , whose territory also lay along the banks of the Nile see History of the Ancient Middle East. Nubian merchants acted as middlemen in Egyptian trade with Sub-Saharan Africa, and Nubian warriors often served as mercenaries in the Egyptian army. Nubian civilization was born ca. For the early phase of Nubian civilization ca. Independence was finally achieved ca. The initial capital of this kingdom was Napata.
For a brief period, Kush actually conquered Egypt , such that its kings took on the additional role of pharaoh. Kush continued to thrive until ca. The region of Nubia continued to be ruled by native kingdoms until the end of the medieval period. During this time, Nubia became Christianized via Egypt ; following the expansion of the Caliphate , Nubia became an island of Christianity in an Islamic sea. The region was finally conquered and converted by neighbouring Islamic powers ca. The next great power of Sub-Saharan Africa was Ethiopia. This state emerged ca. During the first phase of its history ca. During this period, Aksum embraced Christianity , which arrived in Ethiopia via Nubia. Aksumite wealth was based largely on control of Red Sea trade. Aksum fell into economic decline, and its population shifted southward; it thus became an inland state , perched in the temperate Ethiopian highlands.
The spread of Islam across the northern half of Africa surrounded this Christian kingdom with Islamic rivals. Nonetheless, Ethiopia's resilience in the face of both external and civil conflict ensured its survival including its majority Christian culture up to the present day. Throughout most of Sub-Saharan Africa, urban life did not emerge until the medieval period; Nubia and Ethiopia are the two exceptions. Setting these aside, the Sub-Saharan age of pre-colonial civilization spanned ca. While ancient Sub-Saharan Africa was almost bare of cities, the period ca.
Pre-colonial Sub-Saharan civilization can be divided into three types : Christian, Islamic, and traditional. Christian Sub-Saharan civilization was limited to Nubia and Ethiopia. Traditional Sub-Saharan cultures "traditional" in the sense of indigenous religion flourished throughout the southern half of the African continent, but most were non-urban ; only in a few scattered regions did civilization emerge. Islamic civilization, on the other hand, thrived in the cities of various kingdoms throughout the northern half of Africa.
The most fertile portion of Islamic Sub-Saharan Africa was West Africa , thanks to the mighty Niger River ; consequently, the most powerful Sub-Saharan Islamic states known as the "Saharan empires" flourished there, spanning both desert and grassland. Islamic civilization also took hold along much of Africa's east coast , in the form of city-states founded by Arab traders. Sub-Saharan states like states everywhere often derived much of their wealth from trade. During the age of pre-colonial civilization, the Sub-Saharan region featured three major trade zones: north trans-Saharan trade , east Indian Ocean trade , and west Atlantic trade, established by Europe in the Early Modern age.
Major Sub-Saharan exports included slaves, gold, copper, and animal products e. Trans-Saharan trade chiefly involved the exchange of West African gold and slaves for manufactured goods and salt from North Africa. Indian Ocean trade focused on the exchange of slaves and raw materials from East and Southern Africa for the manufactured goods of the Islamic world and South Asia. In the Early Modern age, European trading settlements along the west coast added a third major commercial zone, Atlantic trade , which largely supplanted trans-Saharan trade.
The Saharan empires produced gold and ivory for export to North Africa; they also served as intermediaries for northward flows of gold from Guinea. While these empires were the most prominent Islamic states in Sub-Saharan Africa, smaller Islamic kingdoms formed to the east, such that nearly the entire northern half of the continent fell under Islamic rule. This is reflected in a modern-day religious map of Africa. The Christianization of the southern half of Africa, which is also reflected in the map below, did not occur until the colonial age. The east coast city-states , the largest of which included Mogadishu and Mombasa , were founded by Arab traders.
While governed by an Arab ruling class, these cities were populated by Arabs and Africans alike. In the Early Modern period, they often fell under the control of Portugal or Oman a Caliphate splinter state , who struggled for dominance of the coast.The National Party in South Africa rises to power, paving Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce way for the monster experiment Apartheid regime and its legislations to be implemented in South Africa. This would be the Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce native Egyptian regime since the Fatimids were defeated in CE. Fraught with political, economic, and Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce challenges, Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce of postwar Africa fell to dictatorshipswhich were often notoriously brutal. Around the 12th and 13th century, mystical Sufi Hannah Arendt Banality Of Evil Analysis orders Ordinary People In Nazi Germany to spread in the region. During the 13th century the Kingdom would construct a series of large stone structures in its capital of Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce Zimbabwe. A Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce of Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce between Khoikhoi peoples Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce instigated by the Dutch settlers in successful efforts to gain control of their land. Abiola; Essay On Africa Before 1500 Ce Jeyifo