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Hence, British and American law holds that an English-language translation of a foreign text can be published only by arrangement with the author who owns the copyright for that text—i. The translator may be allowed the authorial privilege to copyright the translation, but he or she is excluded from the legal protection that authors enjoy as citizens of the UK or US in deference to another author, a foreign national. And yet it acknowledges that there is a material basis to warrant some such restriction. Nonetheless, general trends can be detected over the course of several decades, and they reveal publishers excluding the translator from any rights in the translation.
Standard British contracts require the translator to make an out- and-out assignment of the copyright to the publisher. Work-for-hire contracts alienate the translator from the product of his or her labor with remarkable finality. Accordingly, we shall be considered the sole and exclusive owner throughout the world forever of all rights existing therein, free of claims by you or anyone claiming through you or on your behalf. Such translations are compensated by a flat fee per thousand English words, regardless of the potential income from the sale of books and subsidiary rights e.
Ultimately, he requested an extension of the delivery date for the translation from roughly a year to sixteen months the contracted date of 1 June was later changed to 1 October Gardam Because this economic situation drives freelance translators to turn out several translations each year, it inevitably limits the literary invention and critical reflection applied to a project, while pitting translators against each other—often unwittingly—in the competition for projects and the negotiation of fees. This redefinition has been accompanied by an improvement in financial terms, with experienced translators receiving an advance against royalties, usually a percentage of the list price or the net proceeds, as well as a portion of subsidiary rights sales.
But these are clearly small increments. A typical first printing for a literary translation published by a trade press is approximately copies less for a university press , so that even with the trend toward contracts offering royalties, the translator is unlikely to see any income beyond the advance. Very few translations become bestsellers; very few are likely to be reprinted, whether in hardcover or paperback. And, perhaps most importantly, very few translations are published in English.
As Figures 1 and 2 indicate, British and American book production increased fourfold since the s, but the number of translations remained roughly between 2 and 4 percent of the total—notwithstanding a marked surge during the early s, when the number of translations ranged between 4 and 7 percent of the total. Publishing practices in other countries have generally run in the opposite direction. Western European publishing also burgeoned over the past several decades, but translations have always amounted to a significant percentage of total book production, and this percentage has consistently been dominated by translations from English.
The translation rate in France has varied between 8 and 12 percent of the total. In , French publishers brought out 29, books, of which were translations 9. The translation rate in Italy has been higher. In , Italian publishers brought out 33, books, of which were translations The German publishing industry is somewhat larger than its British and American counterparts, and here too the translation rate is considerably higher. In , German publishers brought out 61, books, of which were translations These translation patterns point to a trade imbalance with serious cultural ramifications.
British and American publishers travel every year to international markets like the American Booksellers Convention and the Frankfurt Book Fair, where they sell translation rights for many English-language books, including the global bestsellers, but rarely buy the rights to publish English-language translations of foreign books. British and American publishers have devoted more attention to acquiring bestsellers, and the formation of multinational publishing conglomerates has brought more capital to Table 1 World translation publications: from selected languages, a Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Islandic Source: Grannis , p.
The consequences of this trade imbalance are diverse and far- reaching. By routinely translating large numbers of the most varied English-language books, foreign publishers have exploited the global drift toward American political and economic hegemony in the postwar period, actively supporting the international expansion of Anglo- American culture. This trend has been reinforced by English-language book imports: the range of foreign countries receiving these books and the various categories into which the books fall show not only the worldwide reach of English, but the depth of its presence in foreign cultures, circulating through the school, the library, the bookstore, determining diverse areas, disciplines, and constituencies—academic and religious, literary and technical, elite and popular, adult and child see Table 2.
British and American publishing, in turn, has reaped the financial benefits of successfully imposing Anglo-American cultural values on a vast foreign readership, while producing cultures in the United Kingdom and the United States that are aggressively monolingual, unreceptive to the foreign, accustomed to fluent translations that invisibly inscribe foreign texts with English-language values and provide readers with the narcissistic experience of recognizing their own culture in a cultural other.
Insofar as the effect of transparency effaces the work of translation, it contributes to the cultural marginality and economic exploitation that English-language translators have long suffered, their status as seldom recognized, poorly paid writers whose work nonetheless remains indispensable because of the global domination of Anglo-American culture, of English. It is partly a representation from below, from the standpoint of the contemporary English-language translator, although one who has been driven to question the conditions of his work because of various developments, cultural and social, foreign and domestic. The motive of this book is to make the translator more visible so as to resist and change the conditions under which translation is theorized and practiced today, especially in English-speaking countries.
Hence, the first step will be to present a theoretical basis from which translations can be read as translations, as texts in their own right, permitting transparency to be demystified, seen as one discursive effect among others. II Translation is a process by which the chain of signifiers that constitutes the source-language text is replaced by a chain of signifiers in the target language which the translator provides on the strength of an interpretation. Both foreign text and translation are derivative: both consist of diverse linguistic and cultural materials that neither the foreign writer nor the translator originates, and that destabilize the work of signification, inevitably exceeding and possibly conflicting with their intentions.
As a result, a foreign text is the site of many different semantic possibilities that are fixed only provisionally in any one translation, on the basis of varying cultural assumptions and interpretive choices, in specific social situations, in different historical periods. Meaning is a plural and contingent relation, not an unchanging unified essence, and therefore a translation cannot be judged according to mathematics-based concepts of semantic equivalence or one-to-one correspondence. The viability of a translation is established by its relationship to the cultural and social conditions under which it is produced and read.
This relationship points to the violence that resides in the very purpose and activity of translation: the reconstitution of the foreign text in accordance with values, beliefs and representations that preexist it in the target language, always configured in hierarchies of dominance and marginality, always determining the production, circulation, and reception of texts. Translation is the forcible replacement of the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text with a text that will be intelligible to the targetlanguage reader. This difference can never be entirely removed, of course, but it necessarily suffers a reduction and exclusion of possibilities—and an exorbitant gain of other possibilities specific to the translating language.
Whatever difference the translation conveys is now imprinted by the target-language culture, assimilated to its positions of intelligibility, its canons and taboos, its codes and ideologies. Translation can be considered the communication of a foreign text, but it is always a communication limited by its address to a specific reading audience. The violent effects of translation are felt at home as well as abroad. On the one hand, translation wields enormous power in the construction of national identities for foreign cultures, and hence it potentially figures in ethnic discrimination, geopolitical confrontations, colonialism, terrorism, war. On the other hand, translation enlists the foreign text in the maintenance or revision of literary canons in the target-language culture, inscribing poetry and fiction, for example, with the various poetic and narrative discourses that compete for cultural dominance in the target language.
Translation also enlists the foreign text in the maintenance or revision of dominant conceptual paradigms, research methodologies, and clinical practices in target-language disciplines and professions, whether physics or architecture, philosophy or psychiatry, sociology or law. It is these social affiliations and effects—written into the materiality of the translated text, into its discursive strategy and its range of allusiveness for the target- language reader, but also into the very choice to translate it and the ways it is published, reviewed, and taught—all these conditions permit translation to be called a cultural political practice, constructing or critiquing ideology-stamped identities for foreign cultures, affirming or transgressing discursive values and institutional limits in the target-language culture.
The violence wreaked by translation is partly inevitable, inherent in the translation process, partly potential, emerging at any point in the production and reception of the translated text, varying with specific cultural and social formations at different historical moments. The most urgent question facing the translator who possesses this knowledge is, What to do? Why and how do I translate? Although I have construed translation as the site of many determinations and effects—linguistic, cultural, economic, ideological—I also want to indicate that the freelance literary translator always exercises a choice concerning the degree and direction of the violence at work in any translating.
This choice has been given various formulations, past and present, but perhaps none so decisive as that offered by the German theologian and philosopher Friedrich Schleiermacher. Foreignizing translation signifies the difference of the foreign text, yet only by disrupting the cultural codes that prevail in the target language. In its effort to do right abroad, this translation method must do wrong at home, deviating enough from native norms to stage an alien reading experience—choosing to translate a foreign text excluded by domestic literary canons, for instance, or using a marginal discourse to translate it. I want to suggest that insofar as foreignizing translation seeks to restrain the ethnocentric violence of translation, it is highly desirable today, a strategic cultural intervention in the current state of world affairs, pitched against the hegemonic English-language nations and the unequal cultural exchanges in which they engage their global others.
Foreignizing translation in English can be a form of resistance against ethnocentrism and racism, cultural narcissism and imperialism, in the interests of democratic geopolitical relations. By producing the illusion of transparency, a fluent translation masquerades as true semantic equivalence when it in fact inscribes the foreign text with a partial interpretation, partial to English-language values, reducing if not simply excluding the very difference that translation is called on to convey. This ethnocentric violence is evident in the translation theories put forth by the prolific and influential Eugene Nida, translation consultant to the American Bible Society: here transparency is enlisted in the service of Christian humanism. This is of course a relevance to the target-language culture, something with which foreign writers are usually not concerned when they write their texts, so that relevance can be established in the translation process only by replacing source- language features that are not recognizable with target-language ones that are.
Typical of other theorists in the Anglo-American tradition, however, Nida has argued that dynamic equivalence is consistent with a notion of accuracy. Yet the understanding of the foreign text and culture which this kind of translation makes possible answers fundamentally to target-language cultural values while veiling this domestication in the transparency evoked by a fluent strategy. Communication here is initiated and controlled by the target- language culture, it is in fact an interested interpretation, and therefore it seems less an exchange of information than an appropriation of a foreign text for domestic purposes. Both the missionary and the translator must find the dynamic equivalent in the target language so as to establish the relevance of the Bible in the target culture.
But Nida permits only a particular kind of relevance to be established. To advocate foreignizing translation in opposition to the Anglo- American tradition of domestication is not to do away with cultural political agendas—such an advocacy is itself an agenda. The point is rather to develop a theory and practice of translation that resists dominant target-language cultural values so as to signify the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text.
Such a translation strategy can best be called resistancy, not merely because it avoids fluency, but because it challenges the target-language culture even as it enacts its own ethnocentric violence on the foreign text. The notion of foreignization can alter the ways translations are read as well as produced because it assumes a concept of human subjectivity that is very different from the humanist assumptions underlying domestication. Neither the foreign writer nor the translator is conceived as the transcendental origin of the text, freely expressing an idea about human nature or communicating it in transparent language to a reader from a different culture. Rather, subjectivity is constituted by cultural and social determinations that are diverse and even conflicting, that mediate any language use, and, that vary with every cultural formation and every historical moment.
Human action is intentional, but determinate, self- reflexively measured against social rules and resources, the heterogeneity of which allows for the possibility of change with every self-reflexive action Giddens chap. Textual production may be initiated and guided by the producer, but it puts to work various linguistic and cultural materials which make the text discontinuous, despite any appearance of unity, and which create an unconscious, a set of unacknowledged conditions that are both personal and social, psychological and ideological. Thus, the translator consults many different target-language cultural materials, ranging from dictionaries and grammars to texts, discursive strategies, and translations, to values, paradigms, and ideologies, both canonical and marginal.
Their sheer heterogeneity leads to discontinuities—between the source-language text and the translation and within the translation itself—that are symptomatic of its ethnocentric violence. A symptomatic reading, in contrast, locates discontinuities at the level of diction, syntax, or discourse that reveal the translation to be a violent rewriting of the foreign text, a strategic intervention into the target-language culture, at once dependent on and abusive of domestic values. So far we have not exhaustively considered either the case-material or the motives behind it As this is exactly the kind of parapraxis that I can from time to time observe abundantly in myself, I am at no loss for examples.
The mild attacks of migraine from which I still suffer usually announce themselves hours in advance by my forgetting names, and at the height of these attacks, during which I am not forced to abandon my work, it frequently happens that all proper names go out of my head. But there are also the social institutions in which this tradition was entrenched and against which psychoanalysis had to struggle in order to gain acceptance in the post-World War II period.
The fact that the inconsistencies have gone unnoticed for so long is perhaps largely the result of two mutually determining factors: the privileged status accorded the Standard Edition among English-language readers and the entrenchment of a positivistic reading of Freud in the Anglo- American psychoanalytic establishment. Yet this reading also uncovers the domesticating movement involved in any foreignizing translation by showing where its construction of the foreign depends on domestic cultural materials. Symptomatic reading can thus be useful in demystifying the illusion of transparency in a contemporary English-language translation. Wherever his references are incomprehensible to anyone not closely familiar with the Roman scene, I have also brought up into the text a few words of explanation that would normally have appeared in a footnote.
Dates have been everywhere changed from the pagan to the Christian era; modern names of cities used whenever they are more familiar to the common reader than the classical ones; and sums in sesterces reduced to gold pieces, at to a gold piece of twenty denarii , which resembled a British sovereign. The work of assimilation depends not only on his extensive knowledge of Suetonius and Roman culture during the Empire e. Graves sought to make his translation extremely fluent, and it is important to note that this was both a deliberate choice and culturally specific, determined by contemporary English-language values and not by any means absolute or originating with Graves in a fundamental way.
He has therefore to carry forward on an irresistible stream of narrative. Little can be demanded of him except his attention. Knowledge, standards of comparison, Classical background: all must be supplied by the translator in his choice of words or in the briefest of introductions. His translation was so effective in responding to this situation that it too became a bestseller, reprinted five times within a decade of publication. In the preface to his Suetonius, Graves made clear that he deliberately modernized and Anglicized the Latin. At one point, he considered adding an introductory essay that would signal the cultural and historical difference of the text by describing key political conflicts in late Republican Rome.
As the classicist Michael Grant has pointed out, Suetonius gathers together, and lavishly inserts, information both for and against [the rulers of Rome], usually without adding any personal judgment in one direction or the other, and above all without introducing the moralizations which had so frequently characterized Greek and Roman biography and history alike. Occasionally conflicting statements are weighed. In general, however, the presentation is drily indiscriminate. Perhaps, he may feel, that is how people are: they possess discordant elements which do not add up to a harmonious unity.
Consider this passage from the life of Julius Caesar: Stipendia prima in Asia fecit Marci Thermi praetoris contubernio; a quo ad accersendam classem in Bithyniam missus desedit apud Nicomeden, non sine rumorem prostratae regi pudicitiae; quern rumorem auxit intra paucos rursus dies repetita Bithynia per causam exigendae pecuniae, quae deberetur cuidam libertino clienti suo. Butler and Cary —2 Caesar first saw military service in Asia, where he went as aidede- camp to Marcus Thermus, the provincial governor. His prose is so lucid and supple that such symptoms can well be overlooked, enabling the translation to fix an interpretation while presenting that interpretation as authoritative, issuing from an authorial position that transcends linguistic and cultural differences to address the English-language reader.
He punctures the myth of Caesar by equating the Roman dictatorship with sexual perversion, and this reflects a postwar homophobia that linked homosexuality with a fear of totalitarian government, communism, and political subversion through espionage. Foreignizing translations that are not transparent, that eschew fluency for a more heterogeneous mix of discourses, are equally partial in their interpretation of the foreign text, but they tend to flaunt their partiality instead of concealing it.
Forpon him gelyfe lyt, se pe ah lifes wyn gebiden in burgum, bealosipa hwon, wlonc ond wingal, hu ic werig oft in brimlade bidan sceolde. Krapp and Dobbie Not any protector May make merry man faring needy. This translation strategy is foreignizing in its resistance to values that prevail in contemporary Anglo-American culture—the canon of fluency in translation, the dominance of transparent discourse, the individualistic effect of authorial presence. However these conflicting values entered the text, whether present in some initial oral version or introduced during a later monastic transcription, they project two contradictory concepts of subjectivity, one individualistic the seafarer as his own person alienated from mead-hall as well as town , the other collective the seafarer as a soul in a metaphysical hierarchy composed of other souls and dominated by God.
This does not mean that translation is forever banished to the realm of freedom or error, but that canons of accuracy are culturally specific and historically variable. Although Graves produced a free translation by his own admission, it has nonetheless been judged faithful and accepted as the standard English-language rendering by academic specialists like Grant. The revision is obviously too small to minimize the homophobia in the passages. As Bassnett has suggested, his omission of the Christian references, including the homiletic epilogue ll.
His departures from the Exeter Book assumed a cultural situation in which Anglo-Saxon was still very much studied by readers, who could therefore be expected to appreciate the work of historical reconstruction implicit in his version of the poem. The symptomatic reading is an historicist approach to the study of translations that aims to situate canons of accuracy in their specific cultural moments. A symptomatic reading, in contrast, is historicizing: it assumes a concept of determinate subjectivity that exposes both the ethnocentric violence of translating and the interested nature of its own historicist approach.
Insofar as it is a cultural history with a professed political agenda, it follows the genealogical method developed by Nietzsche and Foucault and abandons the two principles that govern much conventional historiography: teleology and objectivity. Genealogy is a form of historical representation that depicts, not a continuous progression from a unified origin, an inevitable development in which the past fixes the meaning of the present, but a discontinuous succession of division and hierarchy, domination and exclusion, which destabilize the seeming unity of the present by constituting a past with plural, heterogeneous meanings. Thus, history is shown to be a cultural political practice, a partial i. And by locating what has been dominated or excluded in the past and repressed by conventional historiography, such an analysis can not only challenge the cultural and social conditions in which it is performed, but propose different conditions to be established in the future.
By constructing a differential representation of the past, genealogy both engages in present cultural debates and social conflicts and develops resolutions that project utopian images. It traces the rise of transparent discourse in English-language translation from the seventeenth century onward, while searching the past for exits, alternative theories and practices in British, American, and several foreign-language cultures—German, French, Italian.
The acts of recovery and revision that constitute this argument rest on extensive archival research, bringing to light forgotten or neglected translations and establishing an alternative tradition that somewhat overlaps with, but mostly differs from, the current canon of British and American literature. This book is motivated by a strong impulse to document the history of English-language translation, to uncover long-obscure translators and translations, to reconstruct their publication and reception, and to articulate significant controversies.
The documentary impulse, however, serves the skepticism of symptomatic readings that interrogate the process of domestication in translated texts, both canonical and marginal, and reassess their usefulness in contemporary Anglo-American culture. The historical narratives in each chapter, grounded as they are on a diagnosis of current translation theory and practice, address key questions. What domestic values has transparent discourse at once inscribed and masked in foreign texts during its long domination?
How has transparency shaped the canon of foreign literatures in English and the cultural identities of English- language nations? Why has transparency prevailed over other translation strategies in English, like Victorian archaism Francis Newman, William Morris and modernist experiments with heterogeneous discourses Pound, Celia and Louis Zukofsky, Paul Blackburn? Would this effort establish more democratic cultural exchanges? Would it change domestic values? Or would it mean banishment to the fringes of Anglo- American culture? This emphasis is not due to the fact that literary translators today are any more invisible or exploited than their technical counterparts, who, whether freelance or employed by translation agencies, are not permitted to sign or copyright their work, let alone receive royalties Fischbach Rather, literary translation is emphasized because it has long set the standard applied in technical translation viz.
As Schleiermacher realized long ago, the choice of whether to domesticate or foreignize a foreign text has been allowed only to translators of literary texts, not to translators of technical materials. Technical translation is fundamentally constrained by the exigencies of communication: during the postwar period, it has supported scientific research, geopolitical negotiation, and economic exchange, especially as multinational corporations seek to expand foreign markets and thus increasingly require fluent, immediately intelligible translations of international treaties, legal contracts, technical information, and instruction manuals Levy F5.
The ultimate aim of the book is to force translators and their readers to reflect on the ethnocentric violence of translation and hence to write and read translated texts in ways that seek to recognize the linguistic and cultural difference of foreign texts. The point is rather to elaborate the theoretical, critical, and textual means by which translation can be studied and practiced as a locus of difference, instead of the homogeneity that widely characterizes it today.
Earl of Roscommon Fluency emerges in English-language translation during the early modern period, a feature of aristocratic literary culture in seventeenth-century England, and over the next two hundred years it is valued for diverse reasons, cultural and social, in accordance with the vicissitudes of the hegemonic classes. At the same time, the illusion of transparency produced in fluent translation enacts a thoroughgoing domestication that masks the manifold conditions of the translated text, its exclusionary impact on foreign cultural values, but also on those at home, eliminating translation strategies that resist transparent discourse, closing off any thinking about cultural and social alternatives that do not favor English social elites.
The dominance of fluency in English- language translation until today has led to the forgetting of these conditions and exclusions, requiring their recovery to intervene against the contemporary phase of this dominance. The following genealogy aims to trace the rise of fluency as a canon of English- language translation, showing how it achieved canonical status, interrogating its exclusionary effects on the canon of foreign literatures in English, and reconsidering the cultural and social values that it excludes at home.
Written in the year, The title page is one among many remarkable things about this book: it omits any sign of authorship in favor of a bold reference to the gap between the dates of composition and publication. Perhaps the omission of his name should also be taken as an effort to conceal his identity, a precaution taken by royalist writers who intended their work to be critical of the Commonwealth Potter — The aristocratic affiliation would have also been perceived by contemporary readers, from various classes and with differing political tendencies.
Written chiefly for the good of schooles, to be used according to the directions in the Preface to the painfull Schoolemaster. A freer translation method was advocated with greater frequency from the s onward, especially in aristocratic and court circles. Those I must tell, I haue in this translation, rather sought his Spirit, then Numbers; yet the Musique of Verse not neglected neither. In the political debates during the Interregnum, a Trojan genealogy could be used to justify both representative government and absolute monarchy.
A Warre to shake off Slavery, and recover publick Liberty. But, like many of his contemporaries, he was apt to mask these material conditions with providentialist claims and appeals to natural law that underwrite a notion of racial superiority. And in line with the recurrent Trojan genealogies of English kings, his choice of an excerpt he entitled The Destruction of Troy allowed him to suggest, more directly, the defeat of the Caroline government and his support for monarchy in England. The topical resonance of his version becomes strikingly evident when it is juxtaposed to the Latin text and previous English versions.
Book II had already been done in several complete translations of the Aeneid, and it had been singled out twice by previous translators, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, and Sir Thomas Wroth. Yet both of them had rendered the entire book some eight hundred lines of Latin text. Mynors ll. Denham ll. Denham had himself contributed to this trend with The Sophy , a play intended for court production and set in Persia. But the allusiveness of the translation is more specific.
In the political climate of the s, with the Protectorate resorting to oppressive measures to quell royalist insurgency, it would be difficult for a Caroline sympathizer not to see any parallel between the decapitations of Priam and Charles. But in this climate it would also be necessary for a royalist writer like Denham to use such an oblique mode of reference as an allusion in an anonymous translation. When he had seen his palace all on flame, With the ruine of his Troyan turrets eke, That royal prince of Asie, which of late Reignd over so many peoples and realmes, Like a great stock now lieth on the shore: His hed and shoulders parted ben in twaine: A body now without renome, and fame.
Howard ciiv See here King Priams end of all the troubles he had knowne, Behold the period of his days, which fortune did impone. Ogilby , 5 Denham clearly exceeds his predecessors in the liberties he takes with the Latin text. By choosing this book, he situated himself in a line of aristocratic translators that stretched back to Surrey, a courtly amateur whose literary activity was instrumental in developing the elite court cultures of the Tudor and Stuart monarchs. His aim was not only to reformulate the free method practiced in Caroline aristocratic culture at its height, during the s and s, but to devise a discursive strategy for translation that would reestablish the cultural dominance of this class: this strategy can be called fluency.
A free translation of poetry requires the cultivation of a fluent strategy in which linear syntax, univocal meaning, and varied meter produce an illusionistic effect of transparency: the translation seems as if it were not in fact a translation, but a text originally written in English. Book II is clearly a rough draft: not only does it omit large portions of the Latin text, but some passages do not give full renderings, omitting individual Latin words. There is also a tendency to follow the Latin word order, in some cases quite closely. But why do I these thankless truths pursue; ll. Yet Denham made available, not so much Virgil, as a translation that signified a peculiarly English meaning, and the revisions provide further evidence for this domestication.
The assumption is that meaning is a timeless and universal essence, easily transmittable between languages and cultures regardless of the change of signifiers, the construction of a different semantic context out of different cultural discourses, the inscription of target-language codes and values in every interpretation of the foreign text. But none was sufficiently aware of the domestication enacted by fluent translation to demystify the effect of transparency, to suspect that the translated text is irredeemably partial in its interpretation. Dryden also followed Denham, most importantly, in seeing the couplet as an appropriate vehicle for transparent discourse. The ascendancy of the heroic couplet from the late seventeenth century on has frequently been explained in political terms, wherein the couplet is viewed as a cultural form whose marked sense of antithesis and closure reflects a political conservatism, support for the restored monarchy and for aristocratic domination— despite the continuing class divisions that had erupted in civil wars and fragmented the aristocracy into factions, some more accepting of bourgeois social practices than others.
An Essay on Criticism, 68— contained a rich alluvial deposit of aspirations and meanings largely hidden from view. Grove 8 The fact that for us today no form better than the couplet epitomizes the artificial use of language bears witness, not just to how deeply transparency was engrained in aristocratic literary culture, but also to how much it could conceal. Waller, and Mr. Dryden ll. The triumph of the heroic couplet in late seventeenth-century poetic discourse depends to some extent on the triumph of a neoclassical translation method in aristocratic literary culture, a method whose greatest triumph is perhaps the discursive sleight of hand that masks the political interests it serves.
It was allied to different social tendencies and made to support varying cultural and political functions. Pope described the privileged discourse in his preface: It only remains to speak of the Versification. Homer as has been said is perpetually applying the Sound to the Sense, and varying it on every new Subject. This is indeed one of the most exquisite Beauties of Poetry, and attainable by very few: I know only of Homer eminent for it in the Greek, and Virgil in Latine. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by Chance, when a Writer is warm, and fully possest of his Image: however it may be reasonably believed they designed this, in whose Verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others.
Few Readers have the Ear to be Judges of it, but those who have will see I have endeavoured at this Beauty. During this crucial moment in its cultural rise, domesticating translation was sometimes taken to extremes that look at once oddly comical and rather familiar in their logic, practices a translator might use today in the continuing dominion of fluency. Fishing is heating up, with bluefish showing up in the bay and keeper-size striped bass being caught more and more. In the last week, striped bass keepers were taken off […]. The team captured […]. It means you have been able to get yourself good food, […].
As of press time, Gov. Baker had not yet signed a law that would allow remote meetings to continue beyond June However, town policy does allow for a remote […]. Truro is transitioning to in-person meetings. A town remote policy allows for a remote option alongside the return to in-person meetings. Meetings are held remotely, in hopes Gov. Baker will sign a law allowing that to continue. From the wellfleet-ma. Meetings are being held in person again. However, a town policy allows a remote option alongside the return to in-person meetings.
A vintage trailer is parked on a gigantic boulder that emerges out of a murky pond. Balanced on top is a small tugboat inhabited by a tentacled monster. A European […]. Brightly colored works hang on every wall, competing for attention. Many juxtapose black-and-white photography with incandescent […]. The weather was strange that March day I first visited my future grave. The morning was clear and balmy, but by afternoon the sky had turned steel gray, and, as […]. In December , it […]. Leave message at Birgitta V. Olson of Wellfleet died on April 30, at age She was predeceased by her husband, Anders, and daughter Margret in and Born on Oct.
Frank J. Krkuc of Provincetown died at home on June 6, Born in Johnstown, Pa. George Flammer, 74, died on May 24, in New Orleans, where he had relocated in He had previously lived in Provincetown for 25 years, working as a carpenter. Peter the Apostle Church, 11 […]. Riding the crests of the waves […]. If all of […]. Each one […]. First, you must pick the right type of construction paper — not too floppy. Henry Frederick Waldo was born at a. His parents […]. When they do, it will fly above their Canadian and Pride […]. Alicia had studied interior decorating and was working freelance in […]. In fact, I spend most of the growing season in Truro worrying about drought and longing for […].
Or using a putter to drive the ball off the tee. How about using a driver to putt the ball into the […]. What a difference a week makes. We went from a November-like Memorial Day weekend storm to a blistering July-like heat wave. Fishing has improved somewhat. Striped bass are filtering in […]. With the move to remote work for so many, the already tenuous lines separating work and life have pretty well dissolved. One result is a thriving productivity industry. It seems […]. There will be a partial solar eclipse tonight, June 10, which people in the northern reaches of planet Earth will have the thrill of seeing as a ring of fire […].
At midnight, after making Cape Ann […]. EASTHAM — Rock Harbor boat slip holders are asking if plans for the new harbormaster office will leave them and their guests high and dry with nowhere to park during […]. Due to the pandemic, meetings are held remotely. Thursday, June 10 Planning Board, 6 p. Zoning Board of Appeals, 6 […]. Thursday, June 10 Climate […]. How do you tell the story of a movement without simply chronicling the lives of a few supposed leaders of that movement? Sarah Schulman tackles this question head-on in Let […]. Good for small projects or […].
Macara, mother of five, and grandmother of two, died peacefully at Cape Cod Hospital […]. Warren J Roderick, 72, of Truro died at his home on May 27, Richard L. Haney of Provincetown died peacefully in his home with his family by his side on June 2, He was the spouse of Edward Criscuolo. Born in Syracuse, […]. Paul O. But the toothed creature […]. One of the reasons so few developers are interested in building affordable housing on the Outer Cape is the extreme complexity of funding such projects. Another reason: the profits are […]. The 14 interior and exterior […].
In particular, affordable housing developments — […]. The vote was 1, to The Provincetown waterfront season certainly has gotten off to a less than auspicious start. This one was in no hurry […]. Picture a plateful of little lemon and vanilla cakes, perfectly risen, and frosted with buttercream swirls strewn with sparkling sanding sugar. How can cupcakes not be the dessert of this […]. Maureen Leavenworth takes a pantsuit black with white lapels that puff up from the coat like unfurled scrolls off a rack in her Orleans bridal shop and, using her hands, […]. Soccer was her game. Now finishing her sophomore year at Dean College […]. Land Court to overturn recent decisions by the zoning board of appeals that stopped the development of 1. My friend Liberty Schilpp has progressed from taking short jogs to becoming a devoted runner.
Photo Nancy Bloom This page is […]. But arrive on time Berry […]. The ceremony, scheduled for Saturday, June 5, will be held outdoors on campus at the […]. Zoning Board of […]. Thursday, June 3 Climate […]. Brian Vines first learned to watch television — not just passively, but in an intellectually engaged way — from his grandmother who was blind. If thunder could sing, it would sound like Alexis P. The big-voiced blues belter from Brooklyn is a singer whose power and presence bring to mind Ma Rainey and […]. For this fourth installment of the Indie Playlist, contributors were asked to pick songs that are imperfect in some way. Perhaps they were recorded live.
Sometimes a day is more than a day. Sometimes the events and experiences of a single day transform it into something larger. I had such a day last week. First […]. A well-worn definition of insanity is repeating the same mistake and expecting a different outcome. Seems like our Mass. Army National Guard never heard that one. They have lately resurrected […]. Cabral is the moderator of […]. High-Priced Movies To the editor: I was elated to see the recent email from the Provincetown Film Society with the roster of some of the most delightful movies of our time […]. Valocchi and Lazaros Papanikolaou. Good for small projects or as office space. For rent in a commercial building in Wellfleet. Space is 11 ft. Peter the Apostle Church in Provincetown.
She died at age 90 […]. A Funeral Mass will be celebrated for Frank J. Pantano at 10 a. Relatives and friends […]. He had served Wellfleet as director of its […]. TRURO — The board of health approved a series of updated regulations on May 18 governing cesspools, septic systems, and well-water testing. The most significant change is that all cesspools […]. The list of developers expressing interest in a handful of affordable housing initiatives now in the works on Outer Cape Cod will likely be short. Taking on such a project […]. A bunch of guys eat lunch every day at the same table. Six feet […]. I strolled through the Gifford section of the Provincetown Cemetery recently, reading the inscriptions on headstones I found intriguing. Many of the people named on those stones are not in […].
There are some advantages to working in a vineyard. You can start to imagine that, if only you had the right apron, swivel-headed […]. With a partial solar eclipse […]. Striped-bass fishing has gone from looking like it was going to develop earlier than usual to now looking like it will start a little later than usual. We are wondering […]. Need some answers? The team is this season. Thursday, May 27 Planning Board, 6 p. Public Pier Corp. Board, 3 […]. Thursday, May 27 Climate […]. She had planned a four-month winter writing retreat as an escape from […]. As Covid began its roller-coaster ride of infection in early , causing panic, sickness, and death, much of the art world came to a halt.
One of the pleasures of reading a memoir is witnessing a character make the same mistakes over and over again. Novels rarely leave room for this. By the last page, […]. Memorial Day weekend is the unofficial start of summer and, with it, the gallery season. My relationship with my sister, my only sibling, may have ended as a result of the Trump presidency. She was always a little strange. My parents thought it was due […]. A year ago, as we faced the lengthening shutdown and the disappearance of what we had thought would be our first big period of growth as a young newspaper, we […].
Joseph D. Harris and Sandra C. Harris to Steven Joseph Zemo and […]. At Commercial St. Starts 10 a. Joseph Bogdan Basine Jr. Brian was born in Quincy to […]. Kenneth E. Ferreira, 88, of Provincetown and Wellfleet died peacefully on May 22, He was a barber for 65 years, owning and operating Mr. The cause was multiple […]. EASTHAM — The select board has unanimously recommended Article 8 on the June 12 annual town meeting warrant, which would increase the short-term rental excise tax from 4 to 6 […]. This is just one of the mind-bending problems […].
BREWSTER — Voters will have an array of school committee candidates to choose from at the May 25 town election, including one who wants to reduce the number of school-choice […]. EASTHAM — A weird and difficult and rarely-touched-upon part of being a young queer person is that, often, you have to take on the role of educator. The trouble, Vasello says, […]. The team is so far […]. Last summer our sweet Nigerian dwarf doe, Princess Buttercup, gave birth with remarkable ease, which is typical for her breed.
I barely noticed that she was in labor before her […]. Having grown up in South Texas and spent tons of time in Southern Arizona, […]. After a long winter, especially this one, it just feels right to air out your car. The weather warms up, you roll down your windows, people can hear you singing […]. Thursday, May 20 Board of Health, 4 p. Thursday, May 20 Housing […]. Teaching English to G. It was a strange Academy Awards in Diversity was the most visible change in the world of Oscar glitz, but the pandemic, with its enforced social distancing and lack […]. Especially when someone tries to […]. A year of isolation and mask mandates has fostered a new appreciation for fresh air. Michael G. Powers and Judith M.
Powers to Mikhail Glabets. Featuring homewares, artwork, furniture, […]. The cause of death was pancreatic cancer. Fran was born […]. After asking the planning board for its advice, the Rock Harbor Improvements Committee […]. Town meeting voters this spring in Truro, Wellfleet, and Eastham will be asked to raise the short-term rental tax rate from 4 to 6 percent, to maximize what state law […]. Some of those 5, […]. The plants were root-bound and malnourished, and they had taken […]. An abundance of toinch bass have been in and around the Race, being caught on SP Swimmers, yellow […].
But some out-of-town trends might be healthy ones. Case in point: pickleball. The sport, which is a mix of […]. Radishes used to bug me. Why were these harsh bitter discs arbitrarily added to my salad? With the Sun and Uranus both in Taurus, you may be feeling the need to escape from the same old routine. No need to take out a personal ad, however. Provincetown: Six Williams-Sonoma loaf pans, gently used; one lb. Buyer may […]. All you need […]. Photo Nancy Bloom This page is available to subscribers. Nauset Regional High School spring sports teams are taking to the field, track, course, and water for the first time since after the spring season was lost due […].
Bicycle Committee, 2 […]. Thursday, May 13 Climate […]. About a month ago, my husband Christopher and I were invited to dinner at my in-laws — our first dinner party since the world fell apart last year. While enjoying […]. Perhaps, like me, you are coming out of the cloistered, monkish existence of the past six […]. An article in the April 22 Independent reminded us that the Herring River Restoration Project has progressed to the phase of seeking state and federal approval.
A Funeral Mass for Joan M. Roderick of Provincetown, who died on Dec. Pam was born in Marlborough, the daughter […]. May through October, good pay, exciting work environment. Some experience required. Apply to [email protected] […]. Stephen K. Channell and William J. Poirier to Jason Loder and Kevin […]. Articles that added […]. And […]. WELLFLEET — In three days last week, the select board held three meetings during which they delayed town meeting by three weeks, reviewed warrant articles, and decided to offer the […].
Owner Andrew Koudijs decided to go into the […]. Studies show that, in America, more than half of us put on unwanted pounds. Chalk it up to a combination of […]. Princess Buttercup, here in her birthing suite, is in good company, in spite of being separated by a fence from the other goats. Goldie Hen has stayed close by her […]. Thursday, May 6 Zoning Board of Appeals, 6 p. Monday, May 10 […]. Thursday, May 6 Climate […]. Most anyone who spends time with a cat will ask what goes on behind the impenetrable stare of its almond-shaped eyes. The Boston-based comic artist and painter Karl Stevens posits […].
When the lockdown hit in March , Twenty Summers, the popular program of talks, concerts, workshops, and artist residencies based at the historic Hawthorne Barn at the end of Miller […]. The problem, as most producers of live entertainment will tell you, is planning. Though everyone is expecting indoor entertainment to return to the Outer Cape in the next few months, […]. Karren is retiring […]. Viscosity etching by Linda Dujack. Instead of rushing headlong like Aries, Taurus takes a step back and […]. Our friend Merrill sent us a kind note the other day about the things she enjoys in the Independent, including the obituaries.
I have eaten at Canteen, but they would not recognize me as a regular. What is […]. She had suffered a stroke in late March. Mary […]. Phyllis Elaine Schlosberg, of Provincetown and New York City, a larger-than-life figure who gave many young performers their start, died on April 21, Phyllis was born […]. Terence J. Article 13, brought forward by a group of […]. Striped bass continue to swim northward at an earlier than usual pace.
Keeper-size bass have reportedly been caught at the Cape Cod Canal, on the south coast of Massachusetts, and […]. BREWSTER — Archery, sailing, water skiing, wind surfing, kayaking, riflery, soccer, lacrosse, and tennis, as well as ceramics, copper enameling, woodworking, cooking, and science workshops — the list of sports […]. After a long absence, Venus has returned as the brilliant Evening Star. It spent some time this winter toughing it out in the frigid predawn sky in its other guise […]. She loves the improvisational problem-solving nature of woodworking, she says. King has […].
The early morning APB comes by text from our friend Ingrid. A farm at nearby Ryder Beach has a surplus of fresh eggs and the farmer is offering them for […]. Hold your horses, star gazers. Last week we had Venus aligning with both Uranus and Mercury while all three were making a hard angle to stern Saturn. To top it […]. The board granted a special permit to Jay […]. Due to the pandemic, most meetings are held remotely. This week, however, there is one exception. The Provincetown Town Meeting […]. Thursday, April 29 Climate […]. She lived part of the year in Wellfleet and studied with the modernist masters Hans Hofmann […].
Sometime in the last year, as one does in a pandemic, I began cleaning drawers. Among the items that I found were unopened packets of seeds. From the start of her career 15 years ago, when she was just a year-old with a cascade of blond curls writing her own lyrics about the pitfalls of high […]. My parents, like so many others, had made the difficult decision to leave their homeland and […]. In early May , a year after six unarmed student war protestors were shot and killed by the National Guard four at Kent State University and two at Jackson State […].
The Health of Nauset Estuary To the editor: I join Kait Logan and Harrison Swift, who wrote letters [March 25] expressing their significant concerns about the proposed dredging of the […]. Amy L. Yet a Cape Cod Commission study found that of the […]. The top-line numbers show that the four outermost towns have among the highest Covid […]. Rouillard graduated from Nauset in — back then, she was […]. For both programs, the hope is to provide […]. In the quiet of a preseason day, he paused to run his […]. When they released their first pipe, designers Jess Baer and Zach Hastings were surprised to find it was a controversial object.
At first, it can be hard to tell whether your doe — your female goat, that is — has gotten pregnant. I spent a good part of my late teens and early 20s traveling and surfing in Central America. I followed word-of-mouth suggestions on where to find the next good wave […]. But the trend this spring has […]. In contrast to the nonstop rush of Aries, Taurus prioritizes taking pleasure while also working mindfully toward goals. Taurus, symbolized by the bull, is a sensual sign, both grounded and […]. Thursday, April 22 Public Pier Corp. Board, 2 p. Planning Board, 6 p.
Monday, April 26 […]. Thursday, April 22 Climate […]. Its flowing script, on an orangey background, is surrounded by a rectangular black frame, anchored by a vertical post. At first glance, the […]. Few things in the life of the Outer Cape have been hit harder by Covid than theater. Live outdoor cabaret performances resumed after the lockdown, and the Provincetown Tennessee Williams […]. On an overcast spring afternoon in , I stood on the shoulder of Route 6, outside Hyannis, with my thumb out. After about 20 minutes, the drizzle began, the sparse […]. How do I know this?
I just bought one, after saying […]. She never fails to come up with a good story […]. Wein and Brian Cummings to Adam J. Nancy L. Born and raised in Provincetown, she was the daughter of the […]. Peter Alan Blanchard died peacefully at age 66 on April 17, in his Provincetown home. He was born in Weymouth on March 10, and was a practicing dentist […]. John Michael Kelley, who was known as Mike, died on Easter Sunday, April 4, , in his Wellfleet home, surrounded by his loving family.
He was the husband of Evelyn […]. The cause was […]. At its April 5 meeting, the select […]. Chris Nagle met Derek Oliver the same way a lot of people do — the two were standing in an unfinished kitchen where unconventional countertops were under discussion. Outside his […]. Lifting weights five days a week, performing cardio exercises seven days a week, and eating a precisely […]. Peter Manso, 80, author of best-selling biographies of Norman Mailer and Marlon Brando, died of an apparent heart attack that he suffered at home in Truro on April 7, Warriors Watch Thursday, April 15 Boys and girls indoor track: Both teams will travel to compete in a meet against Barnstable at 4 p. Cheerleading: The Warriors cheerleading squad will […].
Venus, arriving on […]. Western culture urges us to create lives that are outward facing. We measure the progress of our existence by external gains. We work, attain promotions, have families, perform chores; we […]. She believes she can bring some much-needed perspective: if elected, she said, she would be the […]. Her argument for a second term is that she loves […]. The Provincetown Independent won 14 awards for journalism, design, and photography in the annual Better Newspaper competition of the New England Newspaper and Press Association, announced in Boston last week. Thursday, April 15 Public Pier Corp. Finance Committee, 2 p. Wednesday, […].
Thursday, April 15 Climate […]. Last December, the Independent published the first in a series of articles on town seals of the Outer Cape. The iconography on these seals, created more than a century ago, […]. Until the Meiji Restoration in , the Japanese government made it difficult for outsiders to explore the country. Even with rapid industrialization and modernization, Japan remained a hard place for […]. Vaccine passports are engendering a wide range of emotions and opinions. Cuomo has embraced them in New York. DeSantis has banned them in Florida. Charlie Baker has […]. Ben Zehnder is mad at me. I read with great interest last […]. JOBS Babysitting. Ideally, you have […]. Augustine, Fla.
She was […]. HARWICH — They arrived rusty, dirty, and tired, but thanks to the efforts of a group of students, a fleet of buffed-up bicycles will soon roll off the campus at […]. Communities across the state — and on the Outer Cape — are beginning mandatory testing of their public water supplies for PFAS per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances , a group of compounds […]. A third of Americans have already received one […]. EASTHAM — What began as an effort to improve safety in tidal creek areas by revising boating bylaws has churned up discord among residents over water skiing and motorboat use […]. Head Coach Bruce Strunk was firm when he said […]. Scholars also claim that the conventions of Homeric Greek mean that a close translations will issue in confusing English.
I contend that conforming English to the Greek delivers wording more powerful and polished and fun and in no way more difficult. On his website advertising his translation, Mitchell chose, out of the entire epic, one passage of ten lines from Book One lines to challenge by comparison the three best-selling translations from Richmond Lattimore , Robert Fitzgerald and Robert Fagles John Prendergast. Stephen Mitchell He ended his prayer, and Apollo was swift to answer,. His bow and his quiver were slung. The arrows rattled with every step. Down he strode, and his coming was like the night. He dropped to one knee and drew back a deadly arrow,. First he attacked the mules and the dogs, but soon.
And the close-packed pyres of the dead kept burning, burning,. Where Mitchell differs from my translation, he is differing with Homer. Homer says Apollo sat. Lattimore and Fagles also chose this adulteration. But why? Archers do not shoot on one knee unless from a position of concealment. Homer has the striker from afar actually striking from afar. Mitchell has tossed the signature feature of the god and also the sense of where he is and what he is targeting. The burnings happen repeatedly in intervals without end. From its spelling, the Greek word could be an adjective or an adverb, but in the 14 times it occurs, it always works perfectly as an adverb and never well as an adjective.
That is how translators should be choosing the right and defining words. Notice that fidelity to what Homer actually said not only preserves meaning and artistry, it also confers on common modern words a resonance of genuine antiquity. This is how the King James Bible was translated with painstaking exactness into English from original texts. Wording and syntax were preserved so that the English would sound archaic, intentionally. That is part of its power. A book of momentous revelations sanctioned by its antiquity is not meant to sound like ordinary speech.
It is supposed to sound like the very words of God. I have done this now with the Iliad. It is time to really have a translation as close as possible to the original that presents in plain direct English what Homer actually said in the way he actually said it. Meanwhile, I created this comparison to substantiate my translation by using it to reveal the fidelity and quality of other leading versions, which has never been done, because there must first be a literal word-for-word translation against which the others may be judged. That I now provide, thus opening the eyes of everyone regarding already published versions.
In these reviews, the English translations were only matched against each other, but I am about to match them all against the original Homeric Greek and add more worthy challengers. Below I provide a literal word-for-word translation of those ten lines:. John Prendergast Equal the portion for staying, and if very much one would battle, and in one honor, whether bad or good, he dies the same, he the unworked man and he the much worked? Homer refers to the thymos many, many times in his epic, so to drop this word is to drop a special character of the Homeric world. This pivotal passage throws off every translator and by doing so reveals how their lack of priority in choosing the right and defining words leads to confusion in meaning.
The context is this: a wrathful Achilles is rejecting gifts of appeasement from King Agamemnon, brought to him by his friends Odysseus, Ajax and Phoenix. Agamemnon had wrongly confiscated his portion of the war prizes the beautiful sex slave, Briseis. Achilles starts these ten lines by switching from 1 st person to 3 rd person in to refer to both himself and a rhetorical person, who stays out of battle. A need for the right word starts in line In modern English we call it our lot, meaning what we have by chance or from birth. Achilles in line expands his complaint about his lack of an immediate reward with the principle of an ultimate reward. This slight digression is tricky as it separates the connection between his thought about honor in and the pronoun that refers back to his honor in To avoid confusion from this disconnection, it is important to translate exactly as written in Greek.
No published translator below does so. Homer uses a pronoun here because what Achilles complains about lacking has been named before: his portion of the booty and the honor it represents. The single pronoun can refer to both at once. Achilles uses the 3rd person and a proverbial tone in lines to elevate his personal complaint to a level of moral principal. Their choice of words reminds me of a line from George Bernard Shaw:. In lines , Homer uses plain, factual words: stay, battle, bad, good, unworked, and worked.
But, as will be seen below, all the translators of the modern English-speaking world replace the words of Achilles with moralistic terms. Those who are bad are cowards, while the good are the brave. Those who stay or are unworked are slackers. The pronoun any in instead of referring to honor , what Achilles values most, is changed to a modern value: profit. Every translator rejects the literal meaning of the common Homeric nouns kakos and esthlos in To corroborate my claim that kakos means bad , not coward , notice that not one translator interpreted the adverbial form, kakoos, in line as cowardly.
But look at the simile in lines Achilles, back to the 3 rd person, compares himself to a mother bird who by necessity forages food for her young. These young STAY in the nest, while she struggles to find food. Are the chicks cowards and slackers? Does the mother suffer hardship for profit? The complaints of Achilles in set up his simile in The simile clarifies his complaints. To go with their moralizing word choice, most translators turn lines into proverbial sayings to agree with their misguided modern opinion that likes to believe Achilles becomes disillusioned and questions the ethics of his times.
I think it is the modern translators who question with modern principles the ethical necessities of the Bronze Age in the Bronze Age. Lines should not be true and if true are immoral. Especially for Achilles, fate is not equal and honor is not the same if he stays or battles. He will not die the same if he is unworked or much worked. His goddess mother has told him that staying will reward him with long life, but no renown, while battling will lead to a short life, but eternal renown, so that he will live forever in the memory of his people. Achilles in lines is not finding fault with nameless unrewarded others, he is using irony to point out that he very much has battled, and has been good at it, and has been much worked, for which he deserves gratitude and honors.
He is not finding futility in his heroic code, he is accusing Agamemnon of violating it. He is not disillusioned with the promise of honor. He is furious about being dishonored by their king, and as a man may value the institution of marriage, but not be able to take back his cheating wife, no matter her pleas, because a bitterness around his heart will not let him, so Achilles cannot bring himself to find Agamemnon worthy of being followed. Richmond Lattimore Fate is the same for the man who holds back, the same if he fights hard.
Achilles is portrayed as rambling and hard to follow. His statement in lines to seems to have no coherent chain of thought. For Homer, these three words refer to each other. Thus he has Achilles spouting a modern platitude: no matter what one does, their fate is to die. Instead, Homer has the hero Achilles ask: should the portion be equal for one who stays and one who battles, and should the unworked die the same as the much worked? The answer is no! One who battles should get a worthy portion. The much worked should be honored after death and live forever in the memory of his people.
But here it refers to feathers, so unfledged, unfeathered or flightless must be used. The chicks have wings, but no flight feathers. This passage is an example of Lattimore producing English that is ungraceful and unclear, for which he is often faulted. The speech is hard to follow and its meaning confused, because of infidelity to the Greek and a lack of priority in choosing the right and defining words. To break into the market, a scholar named D. He showed that Lattimore is not truly faithful and that his awkward wording is not the price of fidelity, but is only awkward. This article reminded me of the joke about searching for something left in one room in another room, because of better lighting. What least thing have I to show for it, for harsh days undergone and my life gambled, all these years of war?
A bird will give her fledgling every scrap she comes by, and go hungry, foraging. That is the case with me. Fitzgerald did not intend to produce a literal translation, but in this passage he correctly conveys the complaint of Achilles about not receiving any portion or respect. He continues on, however, in a moralistic tone with words such as brave and coward to assert the idea that Achilles is disillusioned.
He should also know that a fledgling is not unfledged. Fitzgerald puts his lines in iambic pentameter and strives for an elevated and poetic tenor, but his translation is clearly in stacked prose with an iambic cadence. Iambic pentameter does not turn a line into a verse. Verses should hold a complete thought and end at a natural pause, such as in these examples:. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones. Across the clouds I see my shadow fly Out of the corner of my watering eye. Robert Fagles One and the same lot for the man who hangs back and the man who battles hard. The same honor waits for the coward and the brave. They both go down to Death, the fighter who shirks, the one who works to exhaustion.
Nothing — and after suffering hardship, year in year out , staking my life on the mortal risks of war. So for me. Coward and hero get the same reward: You die whether you slack off or work. And what do I have for all my suffering, Constantly putting my life on the line? Murray originally produced for the Loeb Classical Library series in Harvard University Press puts out this series of classics with the original Greek or Latin text on the left page and a faithful translation on the right page. A prose translation puts the text into a format like a novel. But a lack of restrictions can tempt prose translators to be verbose. The popularity of stacked prose which is advertised as verse for marketing reasons proves the comment made by T. William F. Wyatt, Loeb Library A like portion has he who stays back, and he who wars his best, and in one honor are held both the coward and the brave; death comes alike to the idle man and to him who works much.
Nor has it brought me any profit that I suffered woes at heart, constantly staking my life to fight. Stephen Mitchell We all get just the same portion, whether we hang back or fight on with all our strength in the front lines of battle; cowards and brave men are treated with equal respect. I have had not the slightest profit from all the pain I have suffered in battle, constantly risking my life.
Like a mother bird that brings to her unfledged nestlings any morsels she finds, and herself goes hungry, I have spent many sleepless nights, and my days have been bloody battling men who fought for the sake of their sweethearts. Mitchell, following his priorities, does his thing by rewording what Achilles says in and dropping the digression about ultimate reward without any loss of meaning.
Mitchell then merges lines so that the ten-line passage ends up as nine lines in a style that is rapid, plain and direct in thought and expression, and with a fidelity to Homer that is similar to the translations which aim to keep close to the original Greek. Where he goes wrong, however, is changing the subject of the first line from portion to the plural pronoun we. There is no we. Achilles is complaining that he got no portion of the loot and no respect. Everyone else in the room still has their fair portion, including Patroclos. Anthony Verity , a British scholar, produced a line-by-line prose translation published by the Oxford University Press in Anthony Verity The man who just stands there and the man who fights bravely get the same share; coward and brave are equally honoured; a man dies just the same, whether he has done much or nothing, I have endured pain in my heart, always risking my life in battle, but I get no more share than others , not even a little.
Verity is English. They invented the language and are allowed to spell the words any way they like. That is why he is upset. This mistranslation is another attempt to convey the mistaken idea that Achilles is disillusioned with the values of his society, an idea that can only be conveyed with a mistranslation. Barry Powell , a scholar at the University of Wisconsin, produced a translation of the Iliad in , also published by the Oxford University Press. Powell states that he tries to put into English in a lean direct manner what the Greek really says, avoiding modern sensibilities and sticking to the Homer style of repetition and epithets.
To that end, he presents a stacked-prose translation with an interesting style. This goes on line after line. Barry Powell The same lot comes to him who holds back as to him who fights eagerly. In like honor are the shirker and the brave. Death is the same reward for the man who does much and for him who does nothing. It is of no advantage to me that I have suffered pains in my heart, ever risking my life in these contendings.
Like a bird who brings tidbits to her chicks, whatever she can find, but goes herself without, so have I spent many sleepless nights and bloody days passed fighting with men on account of their wives. But Powell is wrong! Death is not the reward. Long life is the reward for staying, eternal renown and a worthy portion of the loot is the reward for battling. Homer has Achilles complain that his reward was unjustly taken. His stated priorities are: a line-by-line adherence to the original with declaimable lines of 5 or 6 stresses. He is certainly less faithful than Lattimore. Peter Green Equal the lot of the skulker and the bravest fighter; courage and cowardice rank the same in honor; death comes alike to the idler and to the hardest worker. Just as a bird brings back to her unfledged chicks whatever morsel she can find, yet herself will suffer a heap of troubles, so I have kept vigil many a sleepless night, and spent bloodstained days engaged in battle, fighting warriors for their women.
Twelve cities of men. In lines , Green fails at his aim to keep a line-by-line adherence and produce easily recited lines. These six lines are units of oral composition designed to be recited as units, but Green jumbles these together. The start of the bird simile that starts line , Green turns into the ending for the previous line. For Homer, a cogent Line ends the thread of thought for the whole passage. Line then starts a new direction of thought about how Achilles has sacked twelve cities.Go cctv pros and cons […]. The Role Of Failure In Homers Odyssey the early s Davis became disillusioned with the more violent course the The Role Of Failure In Homers Odyssey movement had taken. So the girl child will be presented with a Barbie doll, while the The Role Of Failure In Homers Odyssey child will receive a Lego set. Lattimore claims The Role Of Failure In Homers Odyssey lines are poetic with six stressed syllables.