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George Appos Role Model

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For the modern woman, travelling around the city for the purpose s of work and lei sure, her new-found independence wa s reliant on her acce ss to 'new hetero social space s' such a s dep artment stores, librarie s, theatres, mixed clubs and tea-room s. Other critics have de-emphasised the importance of a leisured lifestyle to the practice ofjldnerie, underlining the links between work and women's urban freedoms. Her argument about women's disruptive presence in the city is based on the view that awareness of issues around safety does not prevent them from experiencing their urban environment as 'a place of liberation' p.

However, as Parsons has pointed out, women's access remained restricted throughout this period. See p. She also claims that 'by its very definition. For an alternative account of the geographies of American urban space in xxviii George Gissing, the Working Woman, and Urban Culture of 1 excla imed in surprise, ' in London now, how many lad ies del ight in attend ing what were wont to be the exclusive resorts of men! Kathy Peiss 's excellent study of the commercialised amusements ava ilable to working women in tum-of-the-century New York explores the ways in which dance halls, amusement parks, cinemas and street corners became 'social spaces in wh ich gender relat ions were "played out ", where not ions of sexual ity, courtship, male power, female dependency, and autonomy were expressed and legit imated '.

The focus on leisure also served to quest ion quite how 'legitimate ' women 's partic ipation in city l ife actually was, g iven the potent ially dangerous encounters with men it often entailed. Whilst h is novels often appear to stand out from those of h is contemporaries in the ir defence of women 's right to leisure, they do not pretend that this is easily achievable, and the narrat ive tendency to punish those hero ines who enjoy themselves too much in public has e arned the author a bad press. But Giss ing should also be credited for his real ist re fusal to portray these new fem ininities as readily acceptable, when the female appropriation of c ity culture still only ex isted in a muted form ; W ilson rem inds us of the ambiguities of the female urban experience in her plea that as crit ics we should 'hold in balance an awareness of both the pleasures and the dangers that the city offers women '.

Giss ing 's novels suggest that women 's presence in London 's new heterosoc ial spaces h inged on their abil ity to manage both their a slightly later period, see Sarah Deutsch, Women and the City: Gender, Space and Power in Boston, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Deutsch argues that 'it is important not to mistake. Even in the relatively new female spaces, spaces created by as well as for women, there were limits to female autonomy. However, she cautions against a critical over-investment in the idea of leisure as liberating for women, pointing out that 'without economic independence such freedoms were ultimately hollow.

Introduction xxix exp enditur e and their sexualities, highlighting the enjoyment of lei sure as a difficult challenge on women ' s inadequate wag es. Urban fiction thu s reflected d ebates about th e new fr eedoms available to f emale worker s in contemporary p eriodical s, which al so rev ealed the way s in which the middle-cla ss adoption of lifestyles previously a ssociated with working-cla ss women had widened opportunities for all f emale wage-earners. A typically double-edged article on 'The Working Lady in London' published in th e mainstream journal the Fortnightly Review in 1 promoted the self-relianc e gained through independence but al so link ed the uncontrolled Bohemian lif estyle of working women to the 'evil s' of the city : From 17 onwards [girls] are thrown with little or no protection into the maelstrom of London life, exposed to excitements and temptations, and to all the hazards of late hours, public conveyance, chance acquaintance.

A modest, well-principled woman may go anywhere in this great city, not only without danger, but without seeing or hearing anything to shock her sense of propriety. There are hundreds, bright and self-reliant, to whom 'adventures' of all kinds are a sealed book; but there are others, headstrong, imprudent, or weak and foolish. So many women who lead independent lives resent the least control or interference, take a pride in shaking off what they consider the trammels of society. There can hardly be too much freedom in one way in a woman's life; but the barriers with which custom has fenced her in are like the rail along the edge 85 of a precipice. Thi s extract expresses the t ensions between a modem acceptance of the 'ind epend ent lives' now available to working women and conservative f ear s about unprotected girls risking their reputations by b ehaving fooli shly , subject to the 'hazards' and 'temptations' of the public sphere.

A recurring cultural fear is that the 'ma el strom' of London will t empt resp ectable women into the sexual 'adventures' enjoyed by th eir social inferiors. According to Mary Ryan , one of the questions po sed in di scourses on increa sed female access to public space wa s, 'would the big city beckon women into promi scuous enjoyment of urban 83 See Peiss, pp. As she points out, 'working women' s lack of financial resources posed a problem to their participation in an active social life' p. Contemporary periodicals, particularly the new women's magazines which proliferated in the 1 s and 1 s, helped to define a range of variations on the working woman, including the female bachelor, the modern girl, the working lady, the poor lady and the manly woman, in articles often published alongside or drawing on the research of the social investigators.

But both feminist and mainstream journals reproduced the ambiguities about the public woman characteristic of their time, even though, as Levine has claimed, the feminist press 'sought to counteract not only the distortions of the mainstream, male-dominated press but, additionally, that sector of the mass press which concentrated on more customary women's interests'. What is sometimes mis sing from theoretical debates about the jlaneuse is a detailed consideration of her class credentials, as critics have tended to work from the assumption that the urban woman, like her male counterpart, was a bourgeois figure, making the leisured shopping lady an ideal example.

Recent work on West End commercial culture, such as Walkowitz's discussion of street harassment in shopping districts and Rappaport's study of female shoppers and club-goers, has served to perpetuate this misleading mythology of the metropolis. This was one of a number of responses to the original article of the same title written by Sarah Grand which appeared earlier in the same volume, pp. She identifies the experiences of subarban women, those in domestic service, and working-class women, all women affected by ' the advent of the modem era', as in need of further research. Introduction xxxi Wil son ha s been criti ci sed for suggesting that 'the liberating potential of the city. Similarly, Gi ssing ' s representation of street life, urban entertainment s and women ' s u se s of public tran sport involve s a rea sse ssment of the working- cla ss woman ' s experience s of urban culture, whi ch po sitions her at the centre rather than the margin s of the narrative of modernity in hi s earlier fiction.

A comparison of hi s working-cla ss novel s with hi s championing of the professional woman in the 1 s text s reveal s that concern s about the legitimacy of the working woman's place in the city affect both factory girl s and journali st s, a ctre sse s and profe ssional mu sician s in their claim s to a publi c life. The o ccupation of the publi c sphere by women of all classe s constitute s a challenge to the rigid divide between ideologie s of working- and middle- cla ss femininity. Hi s recurring u se of the practice of stalking in hi s narrative s, which has sometime s been mi sinterpreted a s the male author ' s antagoni sm t o female freedom o f movement in the city, a ctually fun ction s a s a way of highlighting women ' s rejection of the need for male protection, at a time when the out-dated sy stem of chaperonage wa s dying out.

Nead 's premi se that 'new space s seemed to produ ce new femininitie s and no one could be sure how the se women would behave ' 93 i s equally pertinent to women at either end of the social scale, at a time when permitted female sexual behaviours and life style s were being re shaped by the gradual breakdown of the gendered hierarchie s of the publi c sphere. Gi ssing ' s vi sion of citizenship thu s grant s women of all cla sse s the right to occupy space on their own terms, indicating that definition s of modem femininity predicated on mobility extended beyond the female professional and the New 91 Nead's criticism of earlier readings which offer 'a quite extraordinary picture of the nineteenth-century metropolis, peopled, it seems, by men, working women and middle-class female shoppers' is a valid point in her argument for a focus on other categories of bourgeois woman, such as theatre-goers and educated daughters.

But it seems ultimately wrongheaded in holding Wilson responsible for 'not Wilson was one of the first feminist critics to publish a full-length study of female urbanism and later studies by Walkowitz and Nord, largely ignored by Nead, have given ample coverage to a range of bourgeois female experiences on the Victorian streets. This is part of a larger argument about the gradual collapse of distinctions between the working girl and the New Woman in this period. By highlighting perceptions of women's freedom which straddled urban fiction and periodical debate, I hope to provide a more nuanced and historicised account of the Gissing heroine's struggles in 'the maelstrom of London life'. Chapter 1 Prostitution and the Freedoms of Streetwalking When Gissing first began writing novels in the late 1 s, the subjects of prostitution and working-class life were undeniably topical.

Lucy Bland argues that from the 1 s onwards, 'the casual poor - ''the dangerous classes" - were policed more coercively, and their behaviour subjected to greater state intervention'. As Judith Walkowitz has argued, the prostitute functioned in late-Victorian society both as 'a powerful symbol of sexual and economic exploitation under industrial capitalism' , 2 and, increasingly, as 'the quintessential female figure of the urban scene. After the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts in 1 ,5 prostitutes had greater freedom but were also kept under surveillance by philanthropists and the medical profession. Feminist accounts of the 'reclaiming' of prostitutes proliferated in this period, often reinforcing dominant images of such women as 'the social evil' and revealing an uneasiness about working-class female sexuality.

In 1 Mary Jeune argued against the possibilities of rescuing those from the 'lowest class' of fallen women, claiming that 'many of them are too degraded to accept or wish for any help ; and Lucy Bland, Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, Harmondsworth: Penguin, , p. See Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, pp.

Arguably, the vogue for prostitute heroines in fiction tended to flesh out the potentially restrictive images used in feminist, medical and periodical writing on the subject. The French naturalist tradition, at times bordering on the obscene, led the way with its portrayals of feisty, outspoken courtesans, culminating in Emile Zola's notorious Nana, whose provocative image was popularised in the dramatisations running in Paris throughout the 1 s. The social purity 'crusade' which gathered force after 1 initiated a change both in ways of conceptualising prostitution and in public opinion about ways of dealing with the sexually deviant woman. Although Gissing and his British contemporaries were more likely to draw on the language of purity used by the members of the National Vigilance Association and its advocates, the alternative influence of scandalous and sexually explicit French texts, which were available in cheap translations, is undeniable; such texts were l ater condemned as pornographic by purity campaigners.

In 1 8 8 1 Margaret Harkness claimed in the mainstream journal the Nineteenth Century that 'necessity now forces many women out into the world, where the law of the survival of the fittest, and th erefore of the strongest, holds good for all comers'. Elizabeth Wilson's claim that 'to be a woman - an individual, not part of a family or kin group - in the city, is to become a prostitute - a public wom an' can be seen to cast the streetwalker as the quintessential female urb anite, 'recur[ring] continually in the discussion of urban life'. Her lack of respectability, however, may also be signalled in drunkenness and declining health as her spatial freedoms are ultimately restricted by police intervention.

Walkowitz, City ofDreadfol Delight, p. Prostitution and the Freedoms of Streetwalking 3 novelist Annie Holdsworth were to develop Gissing's model into the 1 s when attention shifted to the troubled relationship between the New Woman and her fallen sister in a more sanitised approach partly dictated by the ideals of purity feminism. Images of the Prostitute and Working-Class Sexuality Gissing's first two novels Workers in the Dawn 1 and The Unclassed 1 , were perceived to be shocking in their portrayals of low life, and unsuitable for women readers ; the latter was banned from Mudie's circulating library.

However, they were also pioneering, helping to set a new trend for 'graphic' urban fiction, which dealt with 'the gravest subjects, and with the most difficult and delicate phases of modem social life'. I 2 Daringly writing about prostitutes in the early 1 s was bound to invite comparisons with Zola, though reviewers tended to credit Gissing with more restraint : 'the spirit of The Unclassed is not the spirit of Zola, as the book is not prurient', the Academy claimed with relief in 1 In his reply Gissing denied knowledge of Zola's work but revealingly explained, rather than to any literary influence, I think I must trace the story to my own strongly excitable temperament, operated upon by my hideous experiences of low life.

I was shocked by the gap between the two classes, - not in the mere commonplace matter of material comfort, but in the power of comprehending each other's rule of life. Collected Letters, Vol 1 : 1 , pp. In the hope of receiving guidance about the future direction of his writing, Gissing sent a copy of his first novel, which included characters influenced by Comtean philosophy, to Harrison in 1 See Gissing: The Critical Heritage, ed. Despite the fact that his unorthodox marriage had to be kept secret from his family and friends and is therefore on ly ob liquely referred to in the ear ly letters, this comment is suggestive of the 'hideous experience' of a cross-class marriage, of a wife who cannot comprehend her husband's va lues.

His shock at the gap between the c lasses a lso signa ls his e arnest commitment to de lineating 'modern socia l 'life', with his focus on the group he was to christen 'the unc lassed' testi fying to his interest in the often marginalised characters he observed on the London streets. Such a commitment underpins the crudely plotted Workers in the Dawn, in which the respectable artisan hero Arthur Go lding marries the prostitute Carrie Mitche ll in the phi lanthropic attempt to rescue her from destitution. Their marriage deteriorates rapid ly, jeopardised by Carrie's predi lection for drinking and Go lding's heavy-handed attempts to educate and control her.

In the more assured The Unclassed, the erstwhile teacher Osmond Waymark attempts a similar rescue of the prostitute Ida Starr, though they do not marry ; more refined than Carrie, Ida's potentia l degradations are instead disp laced onto the figure of Harriet Casti, who makes her husband's life a misery by her drinking, refusal to observe his ru les and her uncontrollable hysterica l fits. Both novels typically contrast the agency and a llure of the prostitute with the passivity of the two-dimensiona l middle-class heroine, with the hero divided between attraction and repulsion to the prostitute, a potentia l sexua l partner on ly if she can be educated out of her c lass.

Marred by too many 'impossible long speeches' 15 and the devotion of the first vo lume to tedious descriptions of Go lding's childhood, Workers in the Dawn bears too many marks of the first-time nove list try ing out ideas to merit extensive critical attention ; pub lished at Gissing's own expense, on ly a few copies were sold and according to Jacob Korg, its 'socia l protest was not taken seriously'.

It can then be usefu lly read a longside the more sustained, if idealised, examination of the prostitute in The Unclassed, which as a narrative both benefits and suffers from the much more extensive revisions undertaken at the request of the publisher in 1 and for the second, 'heavily censored and abbreviated', edition of 1 89 5. Her analysis is based on the first edition, which she perceives as more radical in its representations of women: she provides an interesting analysis of some of the excised passages, though the textual changes between the two editions are not always clearly identified for the reader. Prostitution and the Freedoms of Streetwalking 5 and morally pure hero ine, attracted much more favourable reviews, and was more than once compared to Thomas Hardy 's own study of a sexually experienced but 'pure ' wom an, Tess of the D ' Urbervilles 1 89 1 , which was poss ibly influenced by h is read ing of The Unclassed, a novel he certainly admired.

Naturalist fiction of the 1 s and early 1 s, whilst honouring the tradit ion of representing such women as objects of horror and p ity, tended to pr iv ilege the attractive over the repulsive characteristics of the prost itute, partly by an emphasis on her v ictimisation under cap italism. The sexually frank short stories of Zola 's disc iple, Guy de Maupassant, w ith the ir refresh ing refusal to h ide sexual urges behind a veneer of bourgeois moral ity, are part icularly revealing in the ir fascination w ith the quas i-respectabil ity of prostitution and women 's reasons for entering the sex trade.

The respectable brothel-owner in 'Madame Tellier 's Establishment ' 'had adopted her present pro fess ion just as she m ight have become a milliner or a draper ', avoid ing 'the stiF,a attached to prostitution ' by keeping her establishment outside the large towns. In 'The Odyssey of a Prostitute ', the teenage prostitute is a former domestic servant unable to find any other work after a spell in prison, lured into sol iciting by hunger and desperation : she finds it 'a hard l ife ', particularly in Paris where 'there 's too many of us '. She tells her horrified daughter : If l weren't a harlot, you'd be a kitchen-maid to-day, as I was once, and you'd work for thirty sous a day, and your mistress would send you out on errands to the butcher's, d'you here and kick you out if you were idle.

When you're only a poor servant-girl with fifty francs of savings, you must get away from it somehow if you don't want to rot in the workhouse; and there's only one way for women, only one way, d'you hear, when you're a servant! We can't make fortunes on the stock exchange or at high finance. We've nothing but our bodies, nothing but our bodies?

This was of course the soc ialist argument to be developed by George Bernard Shaw in the hard-hitting Mrs Warren 's Profession, which draws heavily on Maupassant 's story in its staging of the confrontation between brothel-owner Kitty Warren and her p ious daughter Viv ie, though Shaw 's sympathetic portrayal of Kitty 's involvement in the white 18 'Madame Tellier's Establishment' in Guy de Maupassant, Selected Short Stories, trans. Roger Colet Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1 97 1 , p. See also the hypocritical treatment of the prostitute in 'Boule de Suif in the same collection.

Knopf, 1 , p. Although Gissing shied away from the explicit sexual content of naturalist writing, pronouncing one story of Maupassant's 'really and truly disgusting', 21 the French author's vision of the odyssey of a prostitute from hard but menial work to an easier lifestyle is an urban narrative which would become evident in his own work. Gissing's focus on fallen women as victims of economic circumstances both draws on and goes beyond the conventions of naturalist fiction by mounting a stronger attack on preconceptions about working -class sexual deviance.

A contemporary review of The Unclassed promised that, 'it will give to many readers 22 a very different notion of the "unfortunate" class', though this may have been due to the fact that the middle-class readership had no o fficial access to shocking French texts. His prostitutes walk the streets either to supplement meagre wages from exploitation in workrooms or in domestic service, or as a 'rest' from the hard labour such employment involved.

This was in line with current research on the 'just fallen' by reformers, who believed that 'this class of wom an, drawn chiefly from among domestic servants, dressmakers, barmaids and needlewomen, is the largest'. I come home at night that tired out I ain't fit for nothing. And it's hard to have to go out into the Strand, when you're like that' p. Ida's tale of woe, guaranteed to tug at the reader's heart-strings, describes the 'slavery' involved in working as a lady's maid, in which 'bodily weakness, want of proper food, and overwork' p. Research into sweated labour around the turn of the century confirmed that unskilled needlework was very poorly pai d, which meant that 'an ordinary needlewoman cannot earn her living in London' unless she is a particularly swift worker.

Quoted in Pierre Coustillas ed. She links this to the idea that women were more likely to bear the effects of poverty as 'there was virtually no female equivalent of the prosperous male artisan'. Jacob Korg 1 ; Sussex: Harvester Press, 1 Prostitution and the Freedoms ofStreetwalking 7 whether she is working as a prostitute at this point in the text seems rather unclear - we are told in the third volume that ' Carrie's experience had been that of the numberless girls in a similar destitute condition whom London nightly pillows in her hard corners, the only peculiarity being that she had found a way out of her misery without having recourse either to the workhouse or the river' Vol 3 , p.

Symbolised by the shocking scene in which Golding picks up a desperate Carrie clutching her dead baby in the freezing streets outside the Prince of Wales Theatre, the destitute position of poor women is then linked both to economic and sexual exploitation. The links between prostitution and destitution surfaced in other feminist accounts, underlining the rescuer's belief that 'very poor women. One tale of a servant who came back too late at night to risk the wrath of her mistress ends with the foregone conclusion that 'being destitute, [she] fell at once into prostitution'. In both novels women's living arrangements are jeopardised by their potentially disreputable behaviour, as landladies frequently comment on their female lodgers staying out late or receiving unrespectable visitors, which sometimes results in eviction.

In The Unclassed, this works in woman's favour, though this is rare : Harriet traps Julian into marriage by luring him into her bedroom where they are seen together by another lodger ; Mrs Ogle's refusal to tolerate 'the suspicion of wrong-doing under her roo f p. Although Higgs concedes that both ' frivolity and misfortune' are the principal contributory factors to the women's choice of profession, her conviction that the provision of 'suitable and sufficient women's lodging-houses under good management' would go some way to preventing the fall into prostitution shifts the attention away from the 27 All quotations are taken from George Gissing, Workers in the Dawn, 3 vols.

Mary Jeune, who published a series of articles in The Fortnightly Review of 1 about her experience of helping the fallen, distinguished between 'the woman who has just fallen ' and can be 'easily reached by sympathy and kindness ', most probably a victim of seduction, and what she referred to as 'the lowest class of fallen women ' who are 'too degraded to accept or wish for any help ' p. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman doctor and a prominent member of the NV A, referred to this group as a 'growing army of shameless women '. Whilst he is intent on elevating her above the painted prostitutes in Leicester Square, her drinking and disreputable comp anions hasten her decline ; at her lowest point she is drunk and out of control in a back-street bar, her eyes with 'that bleared, indistinct appearance so common in girls of the town ' Vol 3, p.

Apparently in the 'lowest class ' of fallen women, where 'she seemed to have lost all sense of shame ' Vol 3, p. In The Unclassed, streetwalking is more obviously characterised as a temporary phenomenon. Sally moves on to shop work and Ida seeks to continue her work in a laundry, though she is dismissed without notice after a spiteful tip-off about her previous profession by Mrs Sprowl. This loss of her job brings a sense of sh ame yet she does not return to her old ways despite the threat of starvation, perhaps because she is relying on Waymark to help her to retain her new-found respectability. As a beneficiary of middle-class sympathy, she is able to escape the 'degradation ' which will ensure that Carrie dies an early and squalid death, a more stereotypical resolution to the prostitute 's story.

She argues that such images obscure the 'self-perception' of the women involved. The narrator's comment on Ida's mother, Lotty Starr, 'by no means a vicious girl', reinforces the idea of sexual activity as a necessary characteristic of poor young women : 'A girl who says that she is occupied in a workroom is never presumed to be able to afford the luxury of strict virtue' p. Working-class women could always be attacked on the grounds of their sexual knowledge and consequent impurity, as this passage from another of Mary Jeune's articles indicates : The poorer girl is not necessarily impure. When she is obliged to leave home for service we have no right to blame her, if chaste personally, because she is not pure-minded; pure-minded in the sense in which the term is ordinarily used she cannot be.

While she may be deprived of the freshness and delicacy of an ignorant woman, she does not run the same 39 danger of falling. By arguing that working-class girls are always already fallen, given that they have a 'familiarity' with and 'completer knowledge' of sexual matters than middle-class girls, Jeune accuses them of being very close to the shameless prostitute, even if they do not sell their bodies on the street. This reflects the wider 'anxiety over the sexual precocity of working-class girls' which feminists sought to control. Whilst this seems to disprove the theory that working-class women can never be 'pure-minded' because of the sexual characteristics of their class, Gissing remains hesitant about the educated man's desire for sexually active women ; Golding's fear that his marriage may 'degenerate into a mere vulgar connection, subsisting mainly upon sensual emotions' Vol 3, p.

In his reading of Gissing's models of femininity, David Grylls has argued that 'the graceful peasant, suitably adapted, represents the idealized working girl whose image Gissing fondles in his early books'. However, in The Unclassed Gissing moves away from this angel-whore dichotomy, as the 'timid conventionality' of the angelic teacher Maud Enderby has much less appeal than the working girl's aspirations to purity ; whereas Golding realises after a disastrous marriage and Helen's early death from consumption that he has made the wrong choice, Waymark is clearly relieved to be released from his engagement to Maud, suggesting a shift in conceptions of the ideal woman.

Recommending Ida to Julian as a suitable companion for Harriet, he tellingly confides that 'she is by no means the ordinary London work-girl ; you can't call her educated, but she speaks purely, and has a remarkably good As Patricia Ingham has pointed out, Ida is intelligence' pp. She also explicitly refuses the stereotypical tag of 'degraded' an d criticises Waymark for 'speak[ing ] contemptuously, like that' p. But perhaps the author betrays himself by 'fondling' the working girl's image too obviously ; she only remains ideal because she is not ordinary. Her purity is effectively achieved by displacing the shamelessness of the prostitute onto the character of the discontented shop-girl Harriet, whose marriage to Julian, like that of Carrie to Golding, to Gissing and Nell, is destroyed by her drinking, jealousy and hysterical fits.

In contradistinction to Ida, Harriet is 'herself quite innocent of fine feeling' p. Like the laughing prostitute, scarred by drunken brawls, whose eyes 'twinkle with a vicious light' in the opening pages of Workers in the Dawn, she too seems unable to escape 'the baseness of her nature' Vol 1 , p. Grylls points out that 'blurrily idealized portraits of women' appear in many of his books, mobilised by Gissing's ' fantasy of finding a working-class girl who would satisfy his heart' s desire '.

Prostitution and the Freedoms ofStreetwalking 11 low associations. By questioning the shamelessness of the streetwalker and the vileness of the 'vile trade', Gissing uncovered the potential freedoms and sexual independence she could enj oy, though this was always tempered by concerns about reputation in what was to become a characteristically ambiguous vision of woman. The symbolic scene in which Ida swims naked in the sea at Hastings, satisfying an 'irresistible desire to leave the house' p.

This categorises her as a type of prostitute recognised by the medical journal the Lancet, which condemned, in strikingly similar terms, those who chose the profession as 'an easy and luxurious [life], much preferable to the life of drudgery they had hitherto led'. According to Kathy Peiss, the prostitute was sometimes envied by young New York working women for her ' fine dress, easy life, sexual expressiveness and apparent independence' ; in their appropriation of aspects of the prostitute's style, 'so-called ''tough girls". In the excised speech Ida is more forthright about her desire to reform and resist degradation.

For a detailed discussion of the revisions, see Korg, pp. Fictional prostitutes function as 'odd' women in their refusal to contain their sexualities or to passively accept the drudgery of other forms of labour available to working-class women. It is also worth considering the underlying message of his little-known short story 'A Free Woman' 1 , which celebrates, albeit rather ambiguously, the 'life of celibacy and freedom' p. What is striking is the framing of her defence of the prostitute's lifestyle with arguments from feminist accounts of the importance of paid labour to women's citizenship, as Maupassant's justification of the harlot's progress is taken to extremes: A sharp young woman, she needed no academic training to become aware of the movements of the time which chiefly concerned her.

It must not be supposed that female emancipation, in the larger sense, is discussed only among educated women. Charlotte Grubb could talk with the best on the glorious claim of woman to take her share in 'the work of the world'. However dark her mind, this one ray of reflected light had touched upon it, and served for guidance. She knew that women of the higher classes were making speeches. Linked by her independence to more emancipated middle-class heroines such as Rhoda Nunn in The Odd Women, this sets the struggle of the prostitute to carve out her niche in London alongside that of the emerging New Woman.

Streetwalking and the Claim to Public Territory Recent work by feminist historians on the possibilities of a fliineuse figure in the late-Victorian metropolis has tended to concentrate either on the new freedoms of the middle-class woman, as philanthropist, shopper and professional, or on respectable working women, such as the shop-girl. Prostitution and the Freedoms of Streetwalking 13 and hence compromise their reputations. However, relatively little has been said about the particular urban freedoms enj oyed by the prostitute, or her potential appropriation of the role of theflaneuse.

Due to the fact that her occupation of the streets was hardly new, the prostitute does not qualify as one of Walkowitz's 'new social actors' in 1 s London, though Walkowitz does note the overlapping categories which 'intersected at the juncture of commerce and femininity' , where 'in the elegant shopping districts around Regent Street, prostitutes, dressed in "meretricious finery" could and did pass as respectable'. She maintains that 'streetwalkers had been "public" women without being empowered by their presence in public', highlighting their lack of control over the spaces they inhabited and the 'limits to female autonomy' affecting all working women in the metropolis. Whilst her commercialised sexuality makes her vulnerable to the corruption and dangers of the modem city, as Elizabeth Wilson has argued, 'it is necessary also to emphasise the other side of city life and to insist on women's right to the carnival, intensity and even the risks of the city'.

Mary Jeune describes the situation in which: In recounting the downward history of her career, the more abandoned and hardened woman would dwell on the fun, the excitement, the gaiety of its different phases, always keeping silent. Foul, coarse language, oaths, and jests, were used, and the darkest page of the woman's life discussed with such freedom and absence of shame that the least corrupted of women would become habituated to thoughts and aspects of vice from which they would have shrunk in horror a few weeks before. She is more inclined to validate the ' new female spaces' created by women in the city, such as settlement houses and lodging-houses.

As Paula Bartley has argued, 'rescue workers stressed that prostitutes had a wild impulsive nature, a restlessness and a need for independence which drove them onto the streets'. In The Odd Women, the shop-girl 's freedom of movement compares unfavourably with that of the prostitute; as a girl 'to whom the pavement was a place of commerce' p. Looking back, Ida laments her confined situation as a lady's maid as on the rare occasions she is allowed out, she 'walked aimlessly about the streets, watching all the girls I passed, and fancying they all looked so happy, all enjoying their life so' p. Although this gestures towards a broader concept of being 'on the streets', streetwalking ultimately gives Ida with her 'rebellious disposition' p. Despite London's aspirations to be the metropolis of choice, in the second half of the nineteenth century Paris, reaching new heights of decadence before the Second Empire collapsed in the 1 s, became 'the byword for everything that was enchanting and intoxicating about the urban scene'.

Emile Zola's controversial and hugely successful Nana 1 reflects the possibilities of social mobility in the sex trade in its narrative of a poor flower-girl who graduates from the promiscuity of the theatre, described by the manager as a 'brothel', to the quasi-respectable position of the most famous courtesan in the business. Rupert Christiansen notes that when they were evacuated from the working-class areas of central Paris to make way for new apartments, offices and shops, 'streetwalking girls wandered away from their traditional purlieus in the Palais Royal up to the rich pickings of the glittering new Paris', where 'in the constant bustle and throng it became impossible to distinguish between a lady respectably on her own and a girl for hire'.

She also points out that many were ' led astray' by other girls, perhaps because they emphasised the freedoms of the lifestyle in relation to other occupations. George Holden 1 ; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1 Prostitution and the Freedoms ofStreetwalking 15 freedoms initially suggest that she has triumphed over the system, using men to pay her way. However, Zola's preliminary notes describe the plot as 'the poignant drama of a woman destroyed by her appetite for luxury and easy pleasures' , 5 9 as if denying that Nana' s excesses are really what she deserves.

Her fall into destitution and a horrific death from syphilis thinly disguised as smallpox then symbolises the corruption of the Second Empire and repositions the prostitute within the underclass where she should belong. The company later temporarily shut down all 17 of its reactors for inspections to reassure the public they were safe. In February, eight workers were exposed to low-level radiation at another power plant when they were accidentally sprayed with contaminated water.

The doses were not considered dangerous. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. A Bush administration official claimed earlier that North Korea was getting around a self-imposed missile test ban by sharing technology information with Iran, which is allegedly carrying out missile tests on Pyongyang's behalf. Iranian Defense Minister Ali Shamkhani rejected the claim, saying, "Iran does not cooperate with North Korea in missile technology and it does not need to. A leading military publication, Jane's Defense Weekly, reported recently that North Korea was developing two new ballistic missile systems that have "appreciably expanded the ballistic-missile threat.

The missile is thought to be capable of carrying a 2,pound warhead over a distance of some miles, which would put Israel within its range. While Shamkhani denied any kind of nuclear military activity by Iran, he said his country would not leave its people without defense. Washington is working with South Korea, Japan, China and Russia to negotiate an agreement with North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program.

With Iran, the White House has been trying to haul Tehran before the United Nations Security Council based on accusations that the Persian state has been trying to build nuclear weapons against its Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty obligations. Iran maintains its nuclear program is entirely peaceful, geared toward production of nuclear energy. It was the seventh time the missile has worked, but the first time it destroyed a real Scud missile. Shamkhani insisted the Shihab-3 was intended for defensive purposes. When asked if the army was involved in Iran's nuclear program, Shamkhani said that its "only intervention in the nuclear area, is nuclear protection," referring to possible attack from Israel's suspected nuclear arsenal.

Meanwhile, according to a report in the New York Times, US intelligence officials and outside nuclear experts have reached the conclusion that the Bush administration's diplomatic efforts with European and Asian allies have "barely slowed the nuclear weapons programs in Iran and North Korea over the past year", and that both have made "significant progress". In a tacit acknowledgment that the diplomatic initiatives with European and Asian allies have failed to curtail the programs, high-ranking administration and intelligence officials said, according to the report, that they are seeking ways to step up unspecified covert actions intended, in the words of one official, "to disrupt or delay as long as we can" Tehran's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon.

Head of the Arrow project, Yair Ramati, thanked the committee during the Tuesday meeting for its success in convincing the U. In a test that took place last week, an Arrow missile successfully intercepted a Scud missile, which was launched from a vessel in an experimental field of the U. In the course of the experiment, the Arrow was launched from an island in the Pacific ocean, located dozens of kilometers from California's shores. The Arrow Interceptor is the first missile that was specifically designed and built to destroy ballistic missiles on a national level.

It is aimed at becoming the first anti-ballistic missile system able to intercept its targets so high in the stratosphere. The system was designed and constructed after the massive failure of the anti-aircraft Patriot missile system to properly intercept and destroy the Scud missiles fired by Iraq during the first Gulf War in Iran's Shihab-3 ground-to-ground rocket has an effective range beyond 1,kilometers, meaning it can reach Israel. Iran has also plans for two longer-range missiles: a Shihab-4, with a 2,kilometer range and a Shihab-5, with a 5,kilometer range. Bush said Monday. However, Bush didn't outline any steps the U. The first step in halting any nuclear weapons program in Iran is to get the world to unite behind the idea that such a development would be unacceptable, Bush said.

Bush made the comments in Annadale, Va. Bush praised the actions of the U. The three countries reached an agreement last year with Iran that opened up its nuclear program to greater outside scrutiny and included an agreement by Iran that it would halt development of its ability to enrich uranium. Iran recently abandoned the agreement, saying it hasn't received help with its civilian program as promised. Bush appeared to rule a military option to halt Iran's nuclear program, at least for the moment. One response, Bush made clear, is to fan popular discontent among the Iranian people with the government in Tehran. The president noted there is a "significant" number of Iranian-Americans "who long for their homeland to be liberated and free and we are working with them to send messages to their loved ones and relatives through different methodologies.

Not only does the U. The international community has got to find a way to come together and to make certain that that does not happen," Rice said on NBC's "Meet the Press. She predicted that in September the International Atomic Energy Agency will issue a strong statement that will leave Iran isolated. Keto dowjones. Mann Associated Press Monday, August 9, ; Page A16 With Iran stepping up its nuclear program, a top White House aide said yesterday the world finally is "worried and suspicious" over the Iranians' intentions and is determined not to let Tehran produce a nuclear weapon. National security adviser Condoleezza Rice also said the Bush administration sees a new international willingness to act against Iran's nuclear program.

She credited the changed attitude to the Americans' insistence that Iran's effort put the world in peril. She would not say whether the United States would act alone to end the program if the administration could not win international support. Iran's foreign minister, Kamal Kharrazi, announced a week ago that his country had resumed building nuclear centrifuges. He said Iran was retaliating for the West's failure to force the U. Kharrazi said Iran was not resuming enrichment of uranium, which requires a centrifuge. But, he said, Iran had restarted manufacturing the device because Britain, Germany and France had not stopped the investigation by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Since then, North Korea has publicly resumed its nuclear development program. In Iraq, invading U. Iran announced in June that it would resume its centrifuge program. Afterward, the U. Bolton, told Congress that Iran was jabbing "a thumb in the eye of the international community. The international community has got to find a way to come together and to make certain that that does not happen. Declining to respond to a list of demands presented by Iran last week - whose contents were made available to The Associated Press - the Europeans are urging the Iranian government to instead make good on a pledge to clear up suspicions about its nuclear ambitions.

But diplomats said Iran's demands undermine the effort by France, Germany and Britain to avoid a confrontation. They had hoped to persuade Tehran to give up technology that can produce nuclear arms, but now are closer to the Bush administration's view that Iran should be referred to the U. Security Council for violating the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, the diplomats said. The Iranian list, presented during talks in Paris, includes demands that the three European powers: Support Iran's insistence its nuclear program have access to "advanced technology, including those with dual use," which is equipment and know-how that has both peaceful and weapons applications.

Audio Bush says it's important that the Iranian government listen to global demands that it not go nuclear. France, Germany and Britain last year had held out the prospect of supplying Iran with some "dual use" nuclear technology, but only in the distant future and only if all suspicions about the Iranian program were laid to rest. With Iran still under investigation, the demands stunned senior French, German and British negotiators, said a European Union official familiar with the Paris meeting. Ignoring the list, the Europeans instead urged Iran to act on its leaders' pledge to clear up suspicions about their nuclear ambitions by Sept.

The Paris talks ended "with the two sides talking past each other," said a diplomat familiar with the meeting, who - like the other diplomats and the EU official - agreed to discuss the matter only if granted anonymity. In London, the Foreign Office declined to comment on the negotiations with Iran, but said Britain is "not prepared to stand by and watch them collect the necessary technology to make a weapon.

The Bush administration insists Iran wants to make nuclear weapons, despite Tehran's claims that it is interested in uranium enrichment and other "dual use" technology only to help generate electricity. During a campaign stop Monday, President Bush said U. It subsequently stopped enrichment, but continued related activities. That fell short of a demand from the Europeans that it permanently renounce the process, which can both produce fuel for generating electricity and create the core of a nuclear warhead.

While enrichment remains suspended, Iran announced last week that it has resumed full-scale manufacture of centrifuges, which are used in uranium enrichment. But the hardline Iranian stance has emboldened U. It was responding to claims that a US secret agent posed as a terrorist seeking to buy missiles to kill Munir Akram, Pakistan's ambassador to the United Nations, in a bid to catch potential money launderers. The projection of a fictitious threat to a senior envoy from a close ally of the US was "regrettable," Khan said. Khan added: "This has increased our ambassador's and our mission's vulnerability. This technique and methodology is tantamount to autosuggestion and could have endangered the life of our ambassador.

Two men were captured in the operation and are being held by US authorities. Pakistan's outburst came in the midst of a high-profile crackdown on suspected top Al-Qaeda operatives hiding out in the world's second most populous Muslim nation. Thousands of U. The stated U. The reality is there are "a load of contracts" with U. The official ban is in deference to Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, whose solid alliance with the United States in the war on terror stops short of allowing American ground troops in his country. Asked at a March press conference whether U. Rumsfeld responded, "The U. Department of Defense people?

I doubt it. Not that I know of. The source said the former covert warriors joined CIA operations in Pakistan and train local soldiers in counterinsurgency techniques. The de facto deployment of U. Once a backer of the al Qaeda-supporting Taliban regime in Afghanistan, Islamabad has become one of Washington's most essential allies. There was a time when such cooperation seemed impossible. Rumsfeld, received a courtesy call from a former top Pakistani defense official who told him that the Taliban was sure to finally defeat the Northern Alliance and conquer all of Afghanistan.

More alarmingly, this person predicted that his country also would fall to Islamic militants -- making it the first theocracy to own the world's most powerful weapon. Three years later, Pakistan is the setting for the third hot war in the global war on terrorism, joining Afghanistan and Iraq as places where the military hunts and battles al Qaeda and other terrorists. Bush administration officials say, in an odd twist, bin Laden's September 11 attacks might have saved Pakistan. Musharraf, who took power in a coup, saw his hold threatened by Islamic militants who were infiltrating more organs of government, especially the powerful intelligence service.

Gallington, an analyst at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies. Pakistan is the focal point in that part of the world, and Musharraf understands that. Musharraf to pick sides under pressure from Mr. He chose the United States. During the invasion of Afghanistan in December , the Pakistani president allowed his soil to be used by U. During the subsequent counterinsurgency that continues today, he took an even bigger step. For the first time in memory, a president of Pakistan sent government troops into the vast tribal lands bordering Afghanistan. They are hunting for bin Laden and, in the process, confronting and killing bands of al Qaeda terrorists. Pakistan's close working relationship with the CIA and FBI produced the arrests this summer of key al Qaeda members who use the country as a base from which to plan attacks and conduct worldwide communications.

One key capture was Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani, who was indicted in the bombings of two U. On the ideological front, Gen. Musharraf's government has begun dismantling the network of harsh schools or madrassas that teach the young to hate. They are being replaced by public schools funded by the United States. Pakistan served as sanctuary for bin Laden and his network for more than a decade. The teeming neighborhoods of cities such as Karachi and Islamabad serve as perfect hiding places. Now, Gen. Musharraf is allowing CIA and FBI personnel to infiltrate those haunts, as his troops mount incursions into no man's land. It is all part of a risky attempt to methodically weed deadly militants from his country, while keeping the larger population in check. Rumsfeld, in an Aug.

Qari Saifullah Akhtar was secretly flown to the eastern city of Lahore, where he was being interrogated, a Pakistani intelligence official said on the condition of anonymity. Pakistan, a key ally of the United States in its war on terror, has arrested about 20 al Qaeda suspects in less than a month -- including a top figure sought by the United States. The arrests prompted a series of raids in Britain and uncovered al Qaeda surveillance in the United States. The camp -- a sprawling complex of shattered barracks and dusty fields about 10 miles south of the Afghan capital, Kabul -- trained 3, men in combat skills, including assassination and kidnapping. Akhtar disappeared in the hours before the United States started bombing Afghanistan in October and had not been heard from since.

Akhtar was arrested in Dubai "in the past week" and turned over to Pakistan, the minister said, without giving any details about the arrest. Officials in Dubai had no comment. In Washington, the head of the White House's office of counterterrorism said Akhtar's arrest was significant and that he was thought to be involved in two December attempts to assassinate President Pervez Musharraf. Townsend said, "Absolutely. Ahmed said it was "premature" to link Akhtar to the assassination attempts.

Akhtar is said to have been active in several Kashmiri militant groups, including the Harakat-ul-Jehad-e-Islami, whose Muslim fighters have fought as far afield as Chechnya and Bosnia. Ahmed said of Akhtar, without elaborating. Pakistan's Geo television reported yesterday that authorities also had arrested Kashmiri militant Maulana Fazl-ur Rahman Khalil on charges of sending militants to Afghanistan to join the Taliban. Khalil is said to be the leader of Harakat-ul-Mujahideen, a group linked to Harakat-ul-Jehad-e-Islami and one of several Kashmiri militant groups banned by Gen.

Musharraf on suspicion of ties to al Qaeda. Khalil also helped organize a clandestine trip by about a dozen Pakistani journalists to interview bin Laden in Khost, Afghanistan -- one of the last interviews he granted. Senior government ministers had no comment on the Geo report, which did not say when or where Khalil was arrested. Information gleaned during those arrests helped lead to a terror warning in the United States and a sweep in Britain that has netted about a dozen suspects.

The nabbed Lebanese comprised of a businessman and four drivers whose trucks have also been hijacked along with a big load of power generators, An Nahar newspaper reported Sunday. It quoted the chairman of Lebanon's Industrial Association, Fadi Abboud, as saying in an interview that Iraq's rickety security conditions "have led to halting any Lebanese planning to invest in Iraq. According to him, the plan was to invest in the fields of plastics, power generating, air conditioners, petrochemicals and prefabricated houses. He stated Lebanon's exports to Iraq have ebbed between 30 and 35 percent as a result of the latest kidnappings. An arrest warrant has been issued for Chalabi, who is currently overseeing the special tribunal for prosecuting Saddam Hussein. It's been more than 10 years since the slaughter and there's much unfinished business.

One case involves Callixte Mbarushimana. The charges against him are shocking, even in the context of the horrors that engulfed Rwanda. Mbarushimana worked for the United Nations there. He's accused of lending UN resources to the mass killing and even murdering co-workers. One final note on this story. Callixte Mbarushimana is suing the United Nations for back pay, reinstatement and damages. A UN advisory board has recommended that Mbarushimana receive back pay.

But the matter is currently pending before the UN Administrative Tribunal. During the Rwanda genocide ten years ago the UN's small contingent of foreign workers struggled to save lives. Men, women and children were being butchered by the thousands each day. Hutu extremists went to great lengths to track down and kill minority Tutsis working for international organizations like the United Nations. Gregory Alex is a veteran aid worker in Africa. He chose to stay in Rwanda during the genocide to lead emergency relief operations and try to protect his Rwandan colleagues. Because of her ethnicity she was targeted by extremists. Alex is a stocky man with a crew cut and an intense gaze.

He steers his SUV through the center of Kigali. The streets are quiet as he passes freshly painted government buildings that served as the nerve center of the genocide ten years ago. He approaches a dirt lane and stops before a single story house surrounded by lush trees. Florence Ngurumpatse lived here. During the genocide it was just half a mile from a UN safe haven. Gregory Alex: She was there with I think it was 10 children she was taking care of. I think there was a hope because of who she was that maybe she might be able to get out and save the children. Ngurumpatse had taken in the children, mainly teenage schoolgirls, because she thought her UN status would give them protection.

Surrounded by militiamen, she telephoned friends and UN officials, pleading for help in escaping. Alex says her voice grew increasingly desperate. Gregory Alex: And she is saying they came again today, they threatened to kill us, they threatened to rape the girls. You know it was every day a terror. Kind of like the false execution torture where they say we are coming back later and we are going to kill you. His name is Callixte Mbarushimana. During the genocide he assumed control of the UNDP compound after international staff was evacuated. Witnesses told Alex they saw Mbarushimana directing Hutu death squads. Gregory Alex: The first thing they would tell me is don't give any information to Callixte.

He's the one that is looking for us. And he had this, what I sensed from them, this desire to make sure he completed his task, which was to eliminate all Tutsis working for the UN. He was armed. Gregory Alex: And he came over with this angry look on his face and unprovoked he said "Nous eliminarans tous. But hours before UN armored vehicles were dispatched, Hutu militiamen invaded Ngirumpatse's house Gregory Alex: I Imagine that all those people down at the checkpoints said, hey Women and children. Alex suspected Callixte Mbarushimana tipped off militiamen to the impending rescue.

But he didn't have the chance to find out. Like thousands of other Hutus, Mbarushimana fled Rwanda after the genocide. UNDP officials stationed in Africa say they were aware of allegations against Mbarushimana immediately after the genocide. But there is no record of any investigation by the UNDP into the killings of its staff or the possible use of its resources by the extremists. Not only did the UN fail to investigate Mbarushimana at the time Charles Petrie: What infuriated me and others is that somebody like that could continue working for the UN.

He was an international civil servant responsible for the murders of our colleagues. In , Callixte Mbarushimana was discovered still working for the UN Prompted by newspaper reports, the UN detained Mbarushimana and a complex legal battle followed. In the end, a Kosovo court rejected an extradition request from the Rwandan government. Mbarushimana was released and eventually moved to France.

The story seemed to end there. But hidden from the public, the UN war crimes tribunal for Rwanda launched a secret investigation of Mbarushimana in May Torny Grieg: The initial reaction was that, we are embarrassed at this story. He is speaking publicly about the case for the first time. Torny Grieg: It is a shocking story. Here is a man who was our colleague, who killed our colleagues, and we must not be seen to be sitting on our hands. We must get him. Greig interviewed more than 20 witnesses in Rwanda and across Africa and Europe. Torny Grieg: The picture we built up was that for some time prior to April , Mbarushimana had formed a militia, and had done drill and weapons training in the months leading up to the genocide.

They had attended party meetings which from the description seemed to resemble Nuremberg rallies that had been used to whip up feelings and hatred. Witnesses told Greig that in addition to providing cash, vehicles and satellite phones--all UN property--to militias and the army, Mbarushimana was present at massacres of possibly hundreds of people, allegedly shooting some of the victims himself. Some witnesses were Tutsi survivors who told Greig they recognized Mbarushimana. Others were Hutus like this man who says he took part in the massacres alongside Mbarushimana. Anonymous: There were two kind of people among us.

Some of us joined the militia because we had to. Then there were people who really wanted to be there. People who had a desire to kill and would keep a list of the dead and the ones left to be killed. This witness, who asked that his name not be used, is a year-old carpenter who says he was given a club and ordered to help hunt down Tutsis. He remembers Callixte Mbarushimana as one of the top militia authorities in his neighborhood.

Anonymous: Callixte was a vicious and cruel man. He had lists and would direct the militias to homes. Most of the victims in this area were killed under Callixte's orders American RadioWorks obtained a copy of a secret indictment drafted by a senior lawyer with the UN war crimes tribunal in the fall of It charges Mbarushimana with genocide and crimes against humanity. The document lists Florence Ngurumpatse, Callixte's former co-worker, as one of his targets. Mbarushimina would have been the first UN employee ever charged with war crimes by an international tribunal. In an order of dismissal, Del Ponte said there was insufficient evidence to support the charges. Prosecutor Del Ponte declined to discuss the case but Torny Grieg, who has since left the tribunal, says her decision ignored strong evidence against Mbarushimana.

Torny Grieg: I had eyewitness accounts, I had parties to his acts, I had their accounts. There was corroborative evidence from impeccable sources and there was evidence still lying in the ground literally waiting to be dug up, had anyone wanted to do so. The evidence was there. It stacked up and it compared with other cases that I had dealt with. A senior official with the UN Tribunal who requested anonymity agrees that there was enough evidence to prosecute Mbarushimana but declined to elaborate on why the case was dropped. Payam Akhavan: It is somewhat suspicious. Payam Akhavan is a former legal advisor to the UN war crimes tribunal. He left the tribunal prior to the Mbarushimana investigation and is now a senior fellow at Yale law school.

Akhavan says that while the tribunal has sought to prosecute only the top leaders of the genocide, and not lesser figures like Mbarushimana. Payam Akhavan: What is strange in this case is that the prosecutor has gone out of her way to issue an order for dismissal which I find very unusual. Usually an investigation is simply dropped. There is no reason to have a specific order. Speaking through his lawyers, Callixte Mbarushimana strongly denied playing any role in the genocide.

Mbarushimana confirmed he was living with his family in Kigali during the genocide and coordinated work at the UNDP compound. But he says he too was attacked by gunmen during the genocide. Mbarushimana says the UN violated his rights during his detention in Kosovo. And in a further twist, he is now demanding back pay, reinstatement and an unspecified amount in damages before the UN administrative tribunal in New York.

As for the allegations against him, Mbarushimana suggested they were part of a vendetta. Charles Petrie: It's not a vendetta against Callixte. It's a moral responsibility towards those colleagues that we worked with who were killed. Charles Petrie: The fact that somebody like Callixte and that affair can remain active ten years after , people were massacred is symptomatic of the fact that maybe the lessons haven't been learned and systems haven't been established to insure that something like that wouldn't happen again.

He also wants to know why the UN war crimes tribunal dropped the indictment. Petrie says there is growing concern inside the UN that the organization might reach a financial settlement with Mbarushimana. Charles Petrie: The UN is not a government. We have no armies. We basically are able to assert ourselves in difficult situations because of a moral authority.

Were the UN to back down or not to pursue this to a new level then I think it would harm the moral authority. UN officials in New York would not discuss Mbarushimana, citing the case pending before the UN administrative tribunal. But sources close to the case say the organization is resisting any large payment to Mbarushimana. Payam Akhavan: If there is an allegation of bribery or embezzlement or financial wrongdoing by a UN staff member, clearly the SG is under an obligation to order an inquiry. I would suggest that the case for an inquiry is thus much more compelling where the allegation is that a UN staff member was involved in the mass killing of thousands of innocent people.

Thousands, even tens of thousands of cases of murder remained unresolved in Rwanda. This is the poisoned legacy of genocide. Gregory Alex: You know you can come by here every day. You don't think of, you try not to think of what took place. Gregory Alex, who left the UN and now works in Africa for the World Bank, still comes to this place to mourn his murdered colleagues. Gregory Alex: You can see Florence. You can see my drivers. You look at the names here and you just think of, these are people that had skills and were people that represented a future for this country, and they're all gone.

This past spring the Rwandan government added Callixte Mbarushimana to its list of top genocide suspects living outside the country. Rwandan officials say they are discussing the case with authorities in France and will likely press for his extradition. But relations between Rwanda and France are poor. Meanwhile, a ruling from the United Nations Administrative Tribunal is expected in the coming weeks. The committee's report states that "the allegations of misconduct and maladministration are serious" and Volcker told reporters, "I think clearly there's a lot of smoke. Security Council to help Iraqis cope with U. Saddam Hussein's regime could sell unlimited quantities of oil provided the money went primarily to buy humanitarian goods and pay reparations to victims of the Gulf War.

Saddam's government decided on the goods it wanted, who should provide them and who could buy Iraqi oil - but the Security Council committee overseeing sanctions monitored the contracts. Volcker, the former chairman of the U. Federal Reserve, initially predicted that the Independent Inquiry Committee would produce some results on the U. But he said there is a massive amount of documentation to examine just in the United Nations - "10, boxes Volcker said the committee's priority is "to make the definitive report" on the U. Congress has launched five investigations, the U. Justice Department is investigating, the U. Allegations of corruption in the oil-for-food program surfaced in January in the Iraqi newspaper Al-Mada, which published a list of about former government officials, activists, journalists and U.

Volcker's committee has taken custody of the U. He said the committee's member staff was already "well advanced" in organizing the U. Aanand Prasad. Kevin Wolkober. Oct William Banfield. Sep Tanya Reilly. Aug Greg Lopez. May William Archer. Jan Squarespace Engineering. Nov Omar O.

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