⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Philosophical Scepticism Analysis

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Philosophical Scepticism Analysis



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PHILOSOPHY - Epistemology: Three Responses to Skepticism [HD]

Also called logical positivism. Peirce, especially his work in logic and problems in language. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Also called sensuism. Also called sensualism. See also ethics ; literary style ; media. Also called panegoism. See also joining. Thomas Aquinas and his followers. Also called rigorism. Copyright The Gale Group, Inc. Switch to new thesaurus. Cabalism , Kabbalism - the doctrines of the Kabbalah. Aristotelianism , peripateticism - philosophy the philosophy of Aristotle that deals with logic and metaphysics and ethics and poetics and politics and natural science; "Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Western thought".

Platonism , realism - philosophy the philosophical doctrine that abstract concepts exist independent of their names. Stoicism - philosophy the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno. Based on WordNet 3. Philosophical schools and doctrines animism, Aristotelianism, atomism, behaviourism, Cartesianism, conceptualism, Confucianism, consequentialism, conventionalism, critical realism, cynicism, deism, determinism, dualism, Eleaticism, empiricism, epicureanism, essentialism, existentialism, fatalism, fideism, hedonism, Hegelianism, humanism, idealism, immaterialism, Kantianism, logical atomism, logical positivism, Marxism, materialism, monism, neo-Platonism, nihilism, nominalism, phenomenalism, Platonism, pluralism, positivism, pragmatism, Pyrrhonism, Pythagoreanism, rationalism, realism, scepticism, scholasticism, sensationalism, Stoicism, structuralism, Taoism, theism, Thomism, utilitarianism, utopianism.

Philosophie Weltanschauung. Rousseau was a famous philosopher. He's had a lot of bad luck, but he's philosophical about it. He spends all his time philosophizing and never does any work. Mentioned in? References in classic literature? View in context. This is the spirit of idealism, which in the history of philosophy has had many names and taken many forms, and has in a measure influenced those who seemed to be most averse to it. Nor in any other of his writings is the attempt made to interweave life and speculation, or to connect politics with philosophy. The Republic is the centre around which the other Dialogues may be grouped; here philosophy reaches the highest point to which ancient thinkers ever attained. Krempe, professor of natural philosophy. He was an uncouth man, but deeply imbued in the secrets of his science.

In a desultory way he had read a good deal of philosophy , and he looked forward with delight to the leisure of the next few months. Bravery, therefore, and patience are necessary for labour, philosophy for rest, and temperance and justice in both; but these chiefly in time of peace and rest; for war obliges men to be just and temperate; but the enjoyment of pleasure, with the rest of peace, is more apt to produce insolence; those indeed who are easy in their circumstances, and enjoy everything that can make them happy, have great occasion for the virtues of temperance and justice.

The struggle between the old views and the new was long and stubbornly fought out in physical philosophy. Theology stood on guard for the old views and accused the new of violating revelation. The charms of Sophia had not made the least impression on Blifil; not that his heart was pre-engaged; neither was he totally insensible of beauty, or had any aversion to women; but his appetites were by nature so moderate, that he was able, by philosophy , or by study, or by some other method, easily to subdue them: and as to that passion which we have treated of in the first chapter of this book, he had not the least tincture of it in his whole composition.

But there are other grammatical moods that are conventionally associated with different types of speech-act. Note that we would not ordinarily think of orders or questions as even apt for assessment in terms of truth and falsity: they are not truth-apt. The expressivist about a particular area will claim that the realist is misled by the syntax of the sentences of that area into thinking that they are truth-apt: she will say that this is a case where the conventional association of the declarative mood with assertoric force breaks down. There are some very important issues concerning the relationship between minimalism about truth-aptitude and expressivism that we cannot go into here.

See Divers and Miller and Miller b for some pointers. There are also some important differences between e. For a useful account, see Schroeder So, if moral sentences are not conventionally used for the making of assertions, what are they conventionally used for? According to one classical form of expressivism, emotivism , they are conventionally used for the expression of emotion, feeling, or sentiment. Thus, A. Ayer writes:. Emotivism faces many problems, discussion of which is not possible here for a survey, see Miller a Ch.

But what about contexts in which it is not being applied to an action type? But now there is a problem in accounting for the following valid inference:. So the above argument is apparently no more valid than:. According to theories like these, moral modus ponens arguments such as the argument above from 1 and 2 to 3 are just like non-moral cases of modus ponens such as. Throughout, the semantic function of the sentences concerned is given in terms of the states of affairs asserted to obtain in simple assertoric contexts.

Philosophers wishing to develop an expressivistic alternative to moral realism have expended a great deal of energy and ingenuity in devising responses to this challenge. For an overview, see Schroeder and Miller a , Chs 4 and 5. For very useful surveys of recent work on expressivism, see Schroeder and Sinclair Examples of challenges to the existence dimension of realism have been described in previous sections. In this section some forms of non-realism that are neither error-theoretic nor expressivist will be briefly introduced.

The forms of non-realism view the sentences of the relevant area as against the expressivist truth-apt, and against the error-theorist at least sometimes true. The existence dimension of realism is thus left intact. Classically, opposition to the independence dimension of realism about the everyday world of macroscopic objects took the form of idealism , the view that the objects of the everyday world of macroscopic objects are in some sense mental.

As Berkeley famously claimed, tables, chairs, cats, the moons of Jupiter and so on, are nothing but ideas in the minds of spirits:. One such philosopher, Michael Dummett, has suggested that in some cases it may be appropriate to reject the independence dimension of realism via the rejection of semantic realism about the area in question see Dummett and It is easiest to characterise semantic realism for a mathematical domain. It is a feature of arithmetic that there are some arithmetical sentences for which the following holds true: we know of no method that will guarantee us a proof of the sentence, and we know of no method that will guarantee us a disproof or a counterexample either.

It is possible that we may come across a proof, or a counterexample, but the key point is that we do not know a method, or methods, the application of which is guaranteed to yield one or the other. To say that the notion of truth involved is potentially recognition-transcendent is to say that G may be true or false even though there is no guarantee that we will be able, in principle, to recognise that that is so. To say that the notion of truth involved is bivalent is to accept the unrestricted applicability of the law of bivalence, that every meaningful sentence is determinately either true or false.

Thus the semantic realist is prepared to assert that G is determinately either true or false, regardless of the fact that we have no guaranteed method of ascertaining which. Note that the precise relationship between the characterisation in terms of bivalence and that in terms of potentially recognition-transcendent truth is a delicate matter that will not concern us here. See the Introduction to Wright for some excellent discussion.

Dummett makes two main claims about semantic realism. First, there is what Devitt a has termed the metaphor thesis : This denies that we can even have a literal, austerely metaphysical characterisation of realism of the sort attempted above with Generic Realism. Dummett writes, of the attempt to give an austere metaphysical characterisation of realism about mathematics platonic realism and what stands opposed to it intuitionism :. According to the constitution thesis , the literal content of realism consists in the content of semantic realism. Thus, the literal content of realism about the external world is constituted by the claim that our understanding of at least some sentences concerning the external world consists in our grasp of their potentially recognition-transcendent truth-conditions.

As Dummett puts it:. Few have been convinced by either the metaphor thesis or the constitution thesis. Consider Generic Realism in the case of the world of everyday macroscopic objects and properties:. Tables, rocks, mountains, seas, and so on exist, and in general there is no guarantee that we will be able, even in principle, to recognise the fact that they exist and have properties such as mass, size, shape, colour, and so on. On the face of it, there is nothing metaphorical in GR2 or, at least if there is, some argument from Dummett to that effect is required. This throws some doubt on the metaphor thesis. Moreover there is nothing distinctively semantic about GR2 , and this throws some doubt on the constitution thesis. Whereas for Dummett, the essential realist thesis is the meaning-theoretic claim that our understanding of a sentence like G consists in knowledge of its potentially recognition-transcendent truth-condition, for Devitt:.

He writes:. Would it follow that the arguments Dummett develops against semantic realism have no relevance to debates about the plausibility of realism about everyday macroscopic objects say , construed as a purely metaphysical thesis as in GR2? For a full development of this line of argument, see Miller a and Here is the argument See Dummett and the summary in Miller , chapter 9 :. We then add the following premise, which stems from the Wittgensteinian insight that understanding does not consist in the possession of an inner state, but rather in the possession of some practical ability see Wittgenstein :.

The key claim here is 8. The semantic realist views our understanding of sentences like this as consisting in our knowledge of a potentially recognition-transcendent truth-condition. How can that account be viewed as a description of any practical ability of use? No doubt someone who understands such a statement can be expected to have many relevant practical abilities. He will be able to appraise evidence for or against it, should any be available, or to recognize that no information in his possession bears on it. He will be able to recognize at least some of its logical consequences, and to identify beliefs from which commitment to it would follow.

And he will, presumably, show himself sensitive to conditions under which it is appropriate to ascribe propositional attitudes embedding the statement to himself and to others, and sensitive to the explanatory significance of such ascriptions. In short: in these and perhaps other important respects, he will show himself competent to use the sentence. But the headings under which his practical abilities fall so far involve no mention of evidence-transcendent truth-conditions Wright For a full response to the manifestation argument, see Miller See also Byrne Wright develops a couple of additional arguments against semantic realism.

For these—the argument from rule-following and the argument from normativity—see the Introduction to Wright For a robust defence of keeping issues in metaphysics sharply separate from issues about language, see Dyke Suppose that one wished to develop a non-realist alternative to, say, moral realism. Suppose also that one is persuaded of the unattractiveness of both error-theoretic and expressivist forms of non-realism. That is to say, one accepts that moral sentences are truth-apt, and, at least in some cases, true.

Then the only option available would be to deny the independence dimension of moral realism. But so far we have only seen one way of doing this: by admitting that the relevant sentences are truth-apt, sometimes true, and possessed of truth-conditions which are not potentially recognition-transcendent. But this seems weak: it seems implausible to suggest that a moral realist must be committed to the potential recognition-transcendence of moral truth. It therefore seems implausible to suggest that a non-expressivistic and non-error-theoretic form of opposition to realism must be committed to simply denying the potential recognition-transcendence of moral truth, since many who style themselves moral realists will deny this too.

As Wright puts it:. Henceforth a non-error-theoretic, non-expressivist style of non-realist is referred to as an anti-realist. The idea that the explanatory efficacy of the states of affairs in some area has something to do with the plausibility of a realist view of that area is familiar from the debates in meta-ethics between philosophers such as Nicholas Sturgeon , who believe that irreducibly moral states of affairs do figure ineliminably in the best explanation of certain aspects of experience, and opponents such as Gilbert Harman , who believe that moral states of affairs have no such explanatory role.

One could then be a non-expressivist, non-error-theoretic, anti-realist about a particular subject matter by denying that the distinctive states of affairs of that subject matter do have a genuine role in best explanations of aspects of our experience. And the debate between this style of anti-realist and his realist opponent could proceed independently of any questions concerning the capacity of sentences in the relevant area to have potentially recognition-transcendent truth values. The states of affairs in a given area have narrow cosmological role if it is a priori that they do not contribute to the explanation of things other than our beliefs about that subject-matter or other than via explaining our beliefs about that subject matter. This will be an anti-realist position.

One style of realist about that subject matter will say that its states of affairs have wide cosmological role: they do contribute to the explanation of things other than our beliefs about the subject matter in question or other than via explaining our beliefs about that subject matter. It is relatively easy to see why width of cosmological role could be a bone of contention between realist and anti-realist views of a given subject matter: it is precisely the width of cosmological role of a class of states of affairs—their capacity to explain things other than, or other than via, our beliefs, in which their independence from our beliefs, linguistic practices, and so on, consists.

Again, the debate between someone attributing a narrow cosmological role to a class of states of affairs and someone attributing a wide cosmological role could proceed independently of any questions concerning the capacity of sentences in the relevant area to have potentially recognition-transcendent truth values. Wright thinks that it is arguable that moral discourse does not satisfy width-of-cosmological role. Thus, we have a version of anti-realism about morals that is non-expressivist and non-error-theoretic and can be framed independently of considerations about the potential of moral sentences to have recognition-transcendent truth-values: moral sentences are truth-apt, sometimes true, and moral states of affairs have narrow cosmological role.

Suppose that we are considering a region of discourse D in which P is a typical property. Consider the opinions formed by the participants in that discourse under cognitively ideal conditions: call such opinions best opinions , and the cognitively ideal conditions the C-conditions. Suppose that the best opinions covary with the facts about the instantiation of P. Then there are two ways in which we can explain this covariance. First, we might take best opinions to be playing at most a tracking role: best opinions are just extremely good at tracking independently constituted truth-conferring states of affairs. In this case, best opinion plays only an extension-reflecting role, merely reflecting the independently determined extensions of the relevant properties.

Alternatively, rather than viewing best opinion as merely tracking the facts about the extensions of the relevant properties, we can view them as themselves determining those extensions. Best opinions, on this sort of view, do not just track independently constituted states of affairs which determine the extensions of the the properties that form the subject matter of D : rather, they determine those extensions and so to play an extension-determining role.

How do we determine whether the truth about the instantiation of the typical properties that form the subject matter of a region of discourse are judgement-dependent? These have the following form:. The property P is then said to be judgement-dependent if and only if the provisional equation meets the following four conditions:. The A Prioricity Condition: The provisional equation must be a priori true: there must be a priori covariance of best opinions and truth. This is because the thesis of judgement-dependence is the claim that, for the region of discourse concerned, best opinion is the conceptual ground of truth.

We thus require this condition on pain of losing the distinction between judgement-dependent and judgement-independent truth altogether. The Independence Condition : The question as to whether the C -conditions obtain in a given instance must be logically independent of the class of truths for which we are attempting to give an extension-determining account: what makes an opinion best must not presuppose some logically prior determination of the extensions putatively determined by best opinions.

Justification: if we have to assume certain facts about the extension of P in the determination of the conditions under which opinions about P are best, then we cannot view best opinions as themselves constituting those facts, since whether a given opinion is best would then presuppose some logically prior determination of the very facts the judgement-dependent account wishes to view as constituted by best opinions. The Extremal Condition : There must be no better way of accounting for the a priori covariance: no better account, other than according best opinion an extension-determining role, of which the satisfaction of the foregoing three conditions is a consequence.

When all of the above conditions can be shown to be satisfied, we can accord best opinion an extension-determining role, and describe the truth about the subject matter as judgement-dependent. If these conditions cannot collectively be satisfied, best opinion can be assigned, at best, a merely extension-reflecting role. Two points are worth making.

First, it is again relatively easy to see why the question of judgement-dependence can mark a bone of contention between realism and anti-realism. If a subject matter is judgement-dependent we have a concrete sense in which the independence dimension of realism fails for that subject matter: there is a sense in which that subject matter is not entirely independent of our beliefs, linguistic practices, and so on.

Second, the debate about the judgement-dependence of a subject matter is, on the face of it at least, independent of the debate about the possibility of recognition-transcendent truth in that area. Wright argues that facts about colours and intentions are judgement-dependent, so that we can formulate a version of anti-realism about colours intentions that views ascriptions of colours intentions as truth-apt and sometimes true, and truth in those areas as judgement-dependent. In contrast to this, Wright argues that morals cannot plausibly be viewed as judgement-dependent, so that a thesis of judgement-dependence is not a suitable vehicle for the expression of a non-expressivistic, non-error-theoretic, version of anti-realism about morality.

For discussion of further allegedly realism-relevant cruces, such as cognitive command, see Wright and For critical discussion of Wright on cognitive command, see Shapiro and Taschek It is the availability of these various realism-relevant cruces that makes it possible to be more-or-less realist about a given area: at one end of the spectrum there will be areas that fall on the realist side of all of the cruces and at the opposite end areas that fall on the non-realist side of all of the cruces, but in between there will be a range of intermediate cases in which some-but-not-all of the cruces are satisfied on the realist side.

Some of the ways in which non-realist theses about a particular subject matter can be formulated and motivated have been described above. Quietism is the view that significant metaphysical debate between realism and non-realism is impossible. Gideon Rosen nicely articulates the basic quietist thought:. This form of quietism is often associated with the work of the later Wittgenstein, and receives perhaps its most forceful development in the work of John McDowell see in particular McDowell and This is in fact the strategy pursued in Rosen He makes the following points regarding the two realism-relevant Cruces considered in the previous section.

F It is a priori that: x is funny if and only if we would judge x funny under conditions of full information about x s relevant extra-comedic features. Rosen writes:. Suppose we found out that facts about the distribution of gases on the moons of Jupiter supervened directly on facts about our minds. Would the threat we then felt to the objectivity of facts about the distribution of gases on the moons of Jupiter be at all assuaged by the reflection that facts about the mental might themselves be susceptible to realistic treatment? It seems doubtful. Rosen also questions whether there is any intuitive connection between considerations of width of cosmological role and issues of realism and non-realism.

Rosen doubts in particular that there is any tight connection between facts of a certain class having only narrow cosmological role and mind-dependence in any sense relevant to the plausibility of realism. However it seems that, at least in the first instance, Wright has a relatively quick response to this point at his disposal. Whereas what we want is that the narrowness of cosmological role is an a priori matter: one does not need to conduct an empirical investigation to convince oneself that facts about the funny fail to have wide cosmological role. For a further discussion of quietism by Wright, see Wright This discussion of realism and of the forms that non-realist opposition may take is far from exhaustive, and aims only to give the reader a sense of what to expect if they delve deeper into the issues.

For critical discussion, see Hale and Wright and Wright ; see also the entries on scientific realism and challenges to metaphysical realism. Nor have issues about the metaphysics of modality and possible worlds been discussed. The locus classicus in this area is Lewis And the very important topic of scientific realism has not been touched upon. For an introductory treatment and suggestions for further reading, see Bird Ch. Finally, it has not been possible to include any discussion of realism about intentionality and meaning but see the entries on intentionality and theories of meaning. The locus classicus in recent philosophy is Kripke For a robustly realistic view of the intentional, see Fodor For an entertaining defence of metaphysical realism, see Musgrave exercise for the reader: do any of the forms of opposition to realism described in this entry rely on what Musgrave calls word-magic?

For an alternative approach to mapping the debates about realism involving conceptions of independence more distinctively metaphysical than those focussed on here, see Fine and the entry on metaphysical grounding. For good introductory book length treatments of realism, see Kirk and Brock and Mares Greenough and Lynch is a useful collection of papers by many of the leading lights in the various debates about realism. Thanks, too, to SEP reviewers and editors. I should also note that I relied on parts of Miller a and Miller Preliminaries 2. Reductionism and Non-Reductionism 5. Views which Undermine the Debate: Quietism 9. Preliminaries Three preliminary comments are needed.

Views Opposing the Existence Dimension I : Error-Theory and Arithmetic There are at least two distinct ways in which a non-realist can reject the existence dimension of realism about a particular subject matter. T here seems prima facie to be a difficulty in principle in explaining the regularity. The problem arises in part from the fact that mathematical entities as the [platonic realist] conceives them, do not causally interact with mathematicians, or indeed with anything else.

This means we cannot explain the mathematicians beliefs and utterances on the basis of the mathematical facts being causally involved in the production of those beliefs and utterances; or on the basis of the beliefs or utterances causally producing the mathematical facts; or on the basis of some common cause producing both. Perhaps then some sort of non-causal explanation of the correlation is possible? Perhaps; but it is very hard to see what this supposed non-causal explanation could be. Recall that on the usual platonist picture [i.

The problem is that the claims that the [platonic realist] makes about mathematical objects appears to rule out any reasonable strategy for explaining the systematic correlation in question. Any causal explanation of reliability is incompatible with the acausality of mathematical objects. Any non-causal explanation of reliability is incompatible with the language- and mind-independence of mathematical objects. Any explanation of reliability must be causal or non-causal. There is no explanation of reliability that is compatible with both the acausality and language- and mind-independence of mathematical objects.

Therefore, There is no explanation of reliability that is compatible with platonic realism. We can thus construe the argument for the error-theory as follows: Conceptual Claim: Moral facts are objective and categorically prescriptive facts. If there are moral facts, then there are objective and categorically prescriptive facts Definitional consequence of the Conceptual Claim If there are true, atomic, declarative moral sentences, then there are objective and categorically prescriptive facts. Ontological Claim: there are no objectively and categorically prescriptive facts. So, There are no moral facts. So, Conclusion: There are no true, atomic, declarative moral sentences.

An objective good would be sought by anyone who was acquainted with it, not because of any contingent fact that this person, or every person, is so constituted that he desires this end, but just because the end has to-be-pursuedness somehow built into it. Similarly, if there were objective principles of right and wrong, any wrong possible course of action would have not-to-be-doneness somehow built into it. Mackie now backs up this metaphysical argument with an epistemological argument: If we were aware [of objective values], it would have to be by some special faculty of moral perception or intuition, utterly different from our ways of knowing everything else.

These points were recognised by Moore when he spoke of non-natural qualities, and by the intuitionists in their talk about a faculty of moral intuition. Intuitionism has long been out of favour, and it is indeed easy to point out its implausibilities. What is not so often stressed, but is more important, is that the central thesis of intuitionism is one to which any objectivist view of values is in the end committed: intuitionism merely makes unpalatably plain what other forms of objectivism wrap up Whatever we may once have thought, as soon as philosophy has taught us that the world is unsuited to confer truth on any of our claims about what is right, or wrong, or obligatory, etc.

If it is of the essence of moral judgement to aim at the truth, and if philosophy teaches us that there is no moral truth to hit, how are we supposed to take ourselves seriously in thinking the way we do about any issue which we regard as of major moral importance? The question may have a good answer. The error-theorist may be able to argue that the superstition that he finds in ordinary moral thought goes too deep to permit of any construction of moral truth which avoids it to be acceptable as an account of moral truth. But I do not know of promising argument in that direction 3; see also Reductionism and Non-Reductionism Although some commentators e.

Views Opposing the Existence Dimension III : Expressivism about Morals We saw above that for the subject-matter in question the error-theorist agrees with the realist that the truth of the atomic, declarative sentences of that area requires the existence of the relevant type of objects, or the instantiation of the relevant sorts of properties. In adding that this action is wrong, I am not making any further statement about it. I am simply evincing my moral disapproval about it. The tone, or the exclamation marks, adds nothing to the literal meaning of the sentence. It merely serves to show that the expression of it is attended by certain feelings in the speaker Ayer , emphases added. But now there is a problem in accounting for the following valid inference: Murder is wrong.

If Murder is wrong, then getting your little brother to murder people is wrong. Therefore: Getting your little brother to murder people is wrong. So the above argument is apparently no more valid than: My beer has a head on it. If my beer has a head on it, then it must have eyes and ears. Therefore: My beer must have eyes and ears. According to theories like these, moral modus ponens arguments such as the argument above from 1 and 2 to 3 are just like non-moral cases of modus ponens such as Smith is in Glasgow; If Smith is in Glasgow then Smith is in Scotland; Therefore, Smith is in Scotland.

Views Opposing the Independence Dimension I : Semantic Realism Examples of challenges to the existence dimension of realism have been described in previous sections. Dummett writes, of the attempt to give an austere metaphysical characterisation of realism about mathematics platonic realism and what stands opposed to it intuitionism : How [are] we to decide this dispute over the ontological status of mathematical objects[? The disagreement evidently relates to the amount of freedom that the mathematician has. Put this way, however, both seem partly right and partly wrong: the mathematician has great freedom in devising the concepts he introduces and in delineating the structure he chooses to study, but he cannot prove just whatever he decides it would be attractive to prove.

How are we to make the disagreement into a definite one, and how can we then resolve it? As Dummett puts it: The dispute [between realism and its opponents] concerns the notion of truth appropriate for statements of the disputed class; and this means that it is a dispute concerning the kind of meaning which these statements have Whereas for Dummett, the essential realist thesis is the meaning-theoretic claim that our understanding of a sentence like G consists in knowledge of its potentially recognition-transcendent truth-condition, for Devitt: What has truth to do with Realism? On the face of it, nothing at all. Indeed, Realism says nothing semantic at all beyond … making the negative point that our semantic capacities do not constitute the world.

He writes: Does [semantic realism] entail Realism? It does not. Realism … requires the objective independent existence of common-sense physical entities. Semantic Realism concerns physical statements and has no such requirement: it says nothing about the nature of the reality that makes those statements true or false , except that it is [at least in part potentially beyond the reach of our best investigative efforts]. An idealist who believed in the … existence of a purely mental realm of sense-data could subscribe to [semantic realism]. Here is the argument See Dummett and the summary in Miller , chapter 9 : Suppose that we are considering region of discourse D.

Then: We understand the sentences of D. Suppose, for reductio , that The sentences of D have recognition-transcendent truth-conditions. Now, given To understand a sentence is to know its truth-conditions Frege , cf. Miller chapters 1 and 2. We can conclude We know the recognition-transcendent truth-conditions of the sentences of D. It now follows that: To know the truth-conditions of a sentence is to manifest the practical abilities that constitute our understanding of that sentence. So: Our knowledge of the recognition-transcendent truth-conditions of the sentences of D is manifested in our exercise of the practical abilities that constitute our understanding of the sentences of D.

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