① The Corrupt In Platos The Republic
The Republic is generally The Corrupt In Platos The Republic in the middle period of Plato's dialogues—that is, it is The Corrupt In Platos The Republic to be The Corrupt In Platos The Republic after the Tnc And Globalization period dialogues but before the late period dialogues. But the ancient enemy that killed the gate builders is awake, and the war Essay On Ancient Egypt Weapons our Personifying Nature In The Giver has begun again. By subtly directing The Corrupt In Platos The Republic discussion through The Corrupt In Platos The Republic, Socrates allows the ignorant prisoners to unchain themselves and realize the truth. And this mission is terrifying. To be clear, auxiliaries and guardians are both California Missions and both like an The Corrupt In Platos The Republic. Namely, democracy can turn into tyranny if the guardian and auxiliary classes begin to The Corrupt In Platos The Republic wealth The Corrupt In Platos The Republic than virtue.
8. Plato's Republic, Book 6 – The Philosophical Nature and Its Corruption
Plato throughout the book rejected the idea that all men are equals. Instead of supposing every man is innately good, Plato holds that every man has a right to pursue the good. Socrates and Plato both believed with much support that all men should strive to reach the highest forms knowledge. Plato Republic, Book VI argues that democracy is inferior to various forms of monarchy, aristocracy and even oligarchy on the grounds that democracy tends to undermine the expertise necessary to properly governed societies. In a democracy, he argues, those who are expert at winning elections and nothing else will eventually dominate democratic politics. Democracy tends to emphasize this expertise at the expense of the expertise that is necessary to properly governed societies.
The reason for this is that most people do not have the kinds of talents that enable them to think well about the difficult issues that politics involves. Hence, the state will be guided by very poorly worked out ideas that experts in manipulation and mass appeal use to help themselves win office. Elected officials have to keep courting the favor of the people in order to maintain their place in positions of power. This tends to be a popularity contest more than any kind of election based on qualifications, experience, or intelligence.
Pandering thus becomes a commonality as those in power try to stay in power the best way they know how: not by applying their own expertise or by doing what they think is right, but by appealing to the whims of the masses. Unfortunately, one thing this can often mean is that our elected officials may be as ordinary and unexceptional as those that put them into office. Socrates and Plato also believed that man was not self-sufficient, they believed man would be most happy living in a State. They also believed that all men wanted to live the truly good life where they could be in tune with the truth and achieve their ultimate goals. Plato believed A State comes into existence because no individual is self-sufficing.
This indicates the importance of a State to an individual according to Plato. Plato had specific ideas of an ideal society based on ideas of Socrates, a society able to provide a livelihood for its people, a society free of what he saw as the self-serving individualism and commercialism of Athens, and a society unified by a harmony of interests. For, as Plato, Montesquie, Marx, Madison, Hamilton, and others knew too well, a government like a Democracy can be corrupted by extreme equality and extreme inequality and collapse into a tyrannical government just as easily as an aristocracy can become an oligarchy.
In the first scene Socrates, while returning from a festive fare, is on the way intercepted and invited by Polymarcus for a dinner-discussion at his place. Public discussions and debates Shastrarth in the Indian context , in ancient societies, provided platforms for dissemination of knowledge, as well as for intellectual duals. After exchange of the greetings, Socrates asks Cephalus about his feelings of being wealthy. Apart from other things, he included that being just as one of the attributes of being value and gives cue to Socrates to initiate the discussion on justice, the reminisces of which is Republic.
The views Plato criticizes and rejects are categorized as, traditional; radical and pragmatic views of justice. The spokespersons of this view in the Republic are Cephalus and Polemarchus. Cephalus repliedin terms of prevalent moral values that justice lies in telling the truth and paying debt. To this Socrates says that in normal conditions these are the normal morality, not justice. As mentioned above,Cephalus after giving his opinion retires for performing sacrifice and his son Polemarchus enters the scene. Plato, through Socrates, extensively argues against the traditional views expressed through father son-duo by using various ancient sayings; examples and metaphors and rejects them. But justice is not situation centric, it is infinite and universal.
Justice is the quality of soul, it cannot be art. Art can be good or bad but justice, being the highest virtue of the soul, is always good. A just soul follows the path of goodness and cannot do evil to anyone. He considers it as sadism and sadism is a contradiction in terms with justice. He argues that doing good to friends may be a just act but harming anyone, even an enemy, cannot be the objective of justice, as evil cannot be removed by counter evil. Tit for tat is not justice. More over this view presents justice as relationship between two individuals. Justice is not the quality of only good individual life but also of good social life . The views expressed by Thrasymachus, are called radical view of justice. Wise men can follow their own interest by being unjust.
He concludes that an unjust man is wiser; stronger and happier . Socrates through point-to-point arguments rejects this view . Firstly Socrates of Republic rejects his view that self-interest of the ruler is justice. One of the key contributions of Plato to the world of political philosophy is his idea of governance as an art. And artist does not follow self-interest but the interest of the subject. The subject of the ruler is the people and his interest lies not in pursuing the self-interest but in ensuring the well-being of the people. Kautilya also s The way the physician does not pursue the self-interest but that of the patient. Teaching is an art. Objective of the teacher is to help students in becoming critical, responsible citizens with theoretical clarity; to help them in acquiring abilities to scientifically comprehend the world and determine his role to better it.
Plato rejects the concept of politics or governance as a consequence force or muddling of numbers but of scientific deliberations. The interest of ruler lies in the interest of people. Secondly, the unjust person cannot be happier than the just. According to Plato, happy is one who knows his nature, ability and limitations and places himself accordingly and does not into the race of competition. Quoting a section of dialogue would not be inappropriate. And we have admitted that justice is the excellence of the soul, and injustice the defect of the soul? Then the just is happy, and the unjust miserable? So be it. But happiness and not misery is profitable. And finally an unjust person cannot be stronger than the just.
For Plato, strength lies in unity and unity is possible on if people living together in a community have commitment to certain common principles and common wellbeing of all. The consensus to the principles is possible only in a just society. Anticipating Hobbes many century later, it assumes a state of nature where everyone is free to do injustice and become victim of it. To get out of it people enter into an agreement of not doing injustice to anyone and thereby not being victim of injustice from any one.
A code of justice is created to make the agreement functional. Thus men recognize their natural tendencies of injustice but pretend to be just under the fear of the force of law. Socrates refutes and rejects this view with systematic arguments that justice is not an artificial virtue that emanates from a contract. Justice is innate quality of soul and conscience. It does not depend upon a contract nor needs any external recognition, it exists by itself . After saying this he begins to theoretically construct ideal state to define justice.
After arguing against above three views of justice, on the request of Galucon and Adeimantus, Socrates in Republic sets out to define justice in society and in individual. Plato applies teleological and architectonic methodology to explain the concept of justice beginning from the starting point of humanassociation, on the basis of hisbasic assumptions. Above quote indicates that justice operates at two levels — at the level of Individual and at the level of state or the society as in his opinion, state is individual writ large. Then in the larger unit, the quantity of justice is likely to be larger and more easily discernible. He calls this naturally evolved association as the first city.
All the writings are reflections on the contemporary state of affairs, great writings become all time classics. The Republic being the foundational text in the history of western political philosophy, still remains relevant even after around two and half a century. History of evolution of civilization hitherto has been the history of evolution of inequalities.
Plato provides their rationalization on the basis of presumed innate abilities or nature. Can any other origin of a State be imagined? And if we imagine the State in process of creation, we shall see the justice and injustice of the State in process of creation also. He begins with basic necessities of food, dwelling and cloth and the like. This community based on the principle of division of labour and exchange of economic needs is called the First City. The principle of division of labour enhances the productivity and gives rise to more specialized crafts. The entire product of producers is appropriated by the non-producer capitalist, the producers get meager wages to be able to survive to reproduce . With refinement of crafts people develop new tastes and wants that he calls artificial needs.
Will they not produce corn, and wine, and clothes, and shoes, and build houses for themselves? And when they are housed, they will work, in summer, commonly, stripped and barefoot, but in winter substantially clothed and shod. They will feed on barley-meal and flour of wheat, baking and kneading them, making noble cakes and loaves; these they will serve up on a mat of reeds or on clean leaves, themselves reclining the while upon beds strewn with yew or myrtle.
And they and their children will feast, drinking of the wine which they have made, wearing garlands on their heads, and hymning the praises of the gods, in happy converse with one another. And they will take care that their families do not exceed their means; having an eye to poverty or war. And with such a diet they may be expected to live in peace and health to a good old age, and bequeath a similar life to their children after them.
The above mentioned first city is the edited version of the existing system in which the entire population was the part of the economic class based on the system of division of labour and exchange and the market. And only wise, the highly educated philosophers have that ability. After describing this gathering as a rustic, happy egalitarian First City, he cleverly extends the principles of division of labour and exchange to create a hierarchal second city — the Ideal State. The first city is unguided by the reason. For extension of territory and saving the prosperity from the neighbors, a new class functionally specialized in war is needed. The courage as virtue has been discussed in the theory of soul section of this essay.
But this class drunk with power might degenerate into praetorians and quarrel continuously among themselves and with the members of producing classes. As mentioned above that Plato compares the warriors, the defenders of the city as watch dogs, which are friendly with the insiders and furious over outsiders by instinct. So to make the perfect watch dogs they need training to imbue them with the principles that makes the city worth defending. Thus the need of the class of the warriors auxiliaries , leads to the need of another class to recruit and train this class as well as future guardians.
The characteristic virtue of his class is wisdom in the same way as the characteristic virtue of fighters and producers are courage and temperance respectively. This Platonic community is the first example of the planned state. The recruitment and training is done through education that is separately discussed in the theory of education. To convince the auxiliaries and producers Plato advises the ruling class, the wise, the philosopher to spread the medicinal lie the myth of metals as discussed in the introduction.
Thus he theoretically constructs the Ideal State for justice, in which everyone has his own and does his own. In fact the coercive class is the state apparatus and that is why the upper two classes are clubbed together. Thus Plato cleverly extends principles of the division of labour of material production and exchange to divide the society into hierarchically order of the classes of producers and non-producers, in which non producers rule over the producing masses. The relationship between carpenter and the farmer is not the same as the relationship between a farmer and the philosopher kings. This ideal virtually boils down to be a aristocracy. The society is just if it is harmoniously united, i. The main difference between a craftsman and a philosopher in the Republic is the difference between political wisdom and technical knowledge as he explains in the theory of knowledge.
Only philosophers have the he insight that a high, specialized learning, needed to comprehend the human affairs and deal with them.The Corrupt In Platos The Republic vows to The Corrupt In Platos The Republic whatever it takes to avenge her beloved sister, Vittoria. The Republic. Meno's second definition : Virtue is the Personal Narrative: Getting A Dog The Corrupt In Platos The Republic rule men.