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critical comparison essay - resources like ontologies, taxonomies, corpora, etc. Semantic similarity techniques constitute important components in most Information Retrieval and knowledge-based systems. This thesis presents new techniques for measuring the semantic similarity between concepts based on ontology. The proposed measures are based on three. This thesis performs an empirical analysis of Word2Vec by comparing its output to WordNet, a well-known, human-curated lexical database. It finds that Word2Vec tends to uncover more of certain types of semantic relations than others -- with Word2Vec returning more hypernyms, synonomyns and hyponyms than hyponyms or admission-essay.proessay.biz by: Semantic similarity is a long-standing topic of investigation (see, e.g.,  ), but it is in the last few years that it has emerged as a central one: historically, this phenomenon is. essay physical therapy school
ralph ellison research paper - In this thesis we study several Semantic Similarity methods utilizing ontologies in order for estimating Semantic Similarity between terms. We analyze the use of similarity methods in WordNet ontology and building upon the method proposed by Rodriguez, we propose a new method that can be used to compute the semanticCited by: Data leak prevention (DLP) solutions monitor and control data flow. Current techniques find data that matches user defined syntactic patterns. Unfortunately, large classes of DLP relevant data are defined by information semantics, rather than data syntax. Syntax refers to data format, whereas semantics refers to data meaning. The class of social security numbers can be adequately expressed Author: Lianyu Zhao. The main objective **Semantic Similarity** is to measure the distance between the semantic meanings of a pair of words, phrases, sentences, or documents. For example, the word “car” is more similar to “bus” than it is to “cat”. The two main approaches to measuring Semantic Similarity are knowledge-based approaches and corpus-based, distributional methods. essay on world earth day 2012
mla research paper format citations - A short text feature extension method combining statistical information and semantic similarity is proposed,Firstly, After defining the contribution of word, mutual information, an associated word. ers, it is crucial to determine the semantic similarity or semantic relatedness of words. While relatedness takes a wide range of relations between words (includ-ing similarity) into account, similarity only considers how much the concepts denoted by the words are truly alike. Thus similarity entices relatedness, but not vice versa. The new dataset for evaluating STSS measures is now available on the datasets page. Years in the making, it has been produced using the best possible methods currently available and the paper from which it is extracted “A new benchmark dataset with production methodology for Short Text Semantic Similarity algorithms” is groundbreaking in establishing the measurement theoretic and. hippotherapy research paper
major problems in california history documents and essays - Crystal () defines lexical set as “certain formal or semantic features” (p. ) that words share. Al-Jabri () also notes that a unit of word or vocabulary can be called a lexical item or lexeme. This similarity among the lexical sets can lead to, according to (Tinkham, , ), interference. The Interference happens “when words. Mar 05, · semantic similarity is a combination of multiple factors. From the GADES paper (see references) Hierarchical similarity. The first and most popular resource characteristic used to compute semantic similarity is a hierarchical similarity which measures how far are the object in the ontology hierarchical tree and how deep is their Lowest Common Ancestor (LCA) is. Abstract Semantic Similarity relates to computing the similarity between concepts, having the same meaning or related information, which are not lexicographically similar. This is an important problem in Natural Language Processing and Information Re- trieval Research and has received considerable attention in the literature. adl moral courage essay
gcse ireland coursework - Oct 01, · Semantic similarity between sentences. Given two sentences, the measurement determines how similar the meaning of two sentences is. The higher the score, the more similar the meaning of the two sentences. Here are the steps for computing semantic similarity between two sentences: First, each sentence is partitioned into a list of tokens. Jul 22, · Semantic similarity is the practical, widely used approach to address the natural language understanding issue in many core NLP tasks such as paraphrase identification, Question Answering, Natural Language Generation, and Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Semantic similarity is a metric defined over a set of documents or terms, where the idea of distance between items is based on the likeness of their meaning or semantic content as opposed to lexicographical similarity. These are mathematical tools used to estimate the strength of the semantic relationship between units of language, concepts or instances, through a numerical description . petersons perfect personal statements
essay about my friend birthday party - 1. This thesis compares and contrasts various methods of measuring semantic relatedness by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the different measures. 2. A method of handling of multiple inheritance by semantic similarity measures based on WordNet is developed. Previous discussions of semantic similarity measures have given little treatment to 3. translation and the machine translation output. The problem of semantic similarity (Corley and Mihalcea,) is de ned as measuring and recognis-ing semantic relations between two texts. Semantic similarity covers di erent types of semantic relations, . Semantic Textual Similarity Master thesis by Aitor Gonzalez Agirre Advisors Dr. Eneko Agirre Bengoa Dr. German Rigau Claramunt Master in Analysis and Processing of Language Dept. of Computer Languages and Systems Dept. of Computer Architecture and Technology University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) Donostia-San Sebasti an, September essay about feudalism
mars american essayist - This thesis focuses on the semantics of spatial entities and proposes a computational model for assessing semantic similarity among spatial entity classes. Much past research in spatial information science that is concerned with similarity. the semantic analysis of individual semantic options can be used in tandem to assist a modeller or a semanticist to compare two BSMLs or to create a new, desired BSML from scratch. Through the big-step semantic deconstruction, I have discovered that some of the semantic aspects of BSMLs can be uniformly described as forms of synchronization. Jul 08, · Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) measures the degree of equivalence in the underlying semantics of paired snippets of text. ib geography essay rubric
architecture final year thesis - Oct 01, · word-embeddings evaluation jupyter-notebook semantic-similarity bachelor-thesis gensim-library Updated Apr 27, ; Jupyter Notebook; loehnertz / semantic-coupling Star 0 Code Issues Pull requests A library to compute the semantic coupling between source code files. kotlin nlp semantic. May 11, · Semantic similarity A move advanced approach is to compare documents based on how similar their words are. For example, ‘apples’ and ‘oranges’ might be regarded as more similar than ‘apples’ and ‘Jupiter’. A. Semantic Similarity The notion of similarity originated in psychology and has been established to determine why and how entities are grouped into categories, and why some categories are com-parable to each other while others are not , . The main challenge with respect to semantic similarity . an essay writing on my mother
paul antohi thesis - You Semantic Similarity Thesis can get Cheap essay writing help at iWriteEssays. Order custom written essays, research papers, theses, dissertations and other college assignments from our experienced writers. Submit /10(). Semantic similarity is the similarity between two classes of objects in a taxonomy (Lin, ).A class C 1 in the taxonomy is considered to be a subclass of C 2 if all the members of C 1 are also members of C admission-essay.proessay.bizore, the similarity between two classes is based on how closely they are related in the taxonomy. Wu and Palmer () proposed the following similarity measure based on use of. ABSTRACT This paper presents a new measure of semantic similarity in an IS-A taxonomy, based on the notion of information content. links officecedepot paper plate term
dual thesis hegel - Jun 11, · My team and I implemented this model as part of our graduation thesis in single document summarization and evaluation, The first feature is WMD as it can evaluate the semantic similarity. Semantic similarity between concepts is a method to measure the semantic similarity, or the semantic distance between two concepts according to a given ontology. In other terms, semantic similarity is used to identify concepts having Master Thesis.  Z. Wu and M. Palmer. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection. A fundamental principle in distributional semantic models is to use similarity in linguistic en- vironment as a proxy for similarity in meaning. Known as the distributional hypothesis, the. poison dart frog research paper
olive garden essays - Measuring the semantic similarity between Gene Ontology (GO) terms is an essential step in functional bioinformatics research. We implemented a software named GOGO for calculating the semantic similarity between GO terms. GOGO has the advantages of both information-content-based and hybrid methods, such as Resnik’s and Wang’s admission-essay.proessay.biz by: Abstract Some things in our environment are not what they seem, and they provide a challenge to theories of concepts that emphasize similarity. Section 1 of my commentary explores a dilemma this situation creates for Machery. Section 2 describes a more general problem for prototype and exemplar theories. Section 3 locates a place for similarity-based concepts, and indicates an alternative to. Protein semantic similarity measurement has many applications in bioinformatics, including protein function prediction and protein-protein interactions. Semantic similarity measures were proposed by Resnik, Jiang and Conrath, and Lin. Recent measures include Wang and AIC. The question whether the semantic similarity has a strong correlation. essay of my favourite personality is muhammad saw
age of feudalism essay - The semantic similarity score between two words is determined with the help of two word-to-word semantic similarity metrics, namely the metric of Wu&Palmer and the metric of Li et al. SemKPSearch is evaluated by the human evaluators which are all. Semantic Similarity Between Images: A Novel Approach particular association. In  this analysis is extended to another network of word association, the Human Brain Cloud , an online multiplayer word asso-ciation game. In  similar results are obtained, . This thesis investigates the application of language models based on semantic similar-ity to Automatic Speech Recognition for meetings. We consider data-driven Latent Semantic Analysis based and knowledge-driven WordNet-based models. Latent Semantic Analysis based models are trained for several background domains. essays economy china
compare and contrast religions essays - May 22, · Semantic similarity measurement aims to automatically compute the degree of similarity between two textual expressions that use different representations for naming the same concepts. However, very short textual expressions cannot always follow the syntax of a written language and, in general, do not provide enough information to support proper Author: Jorge Martinez-Gil. Semantic similarity can be estimated by defining a topological similarity by using ontologies to define the distance between term and concepts. Taxonomy is often represented as a hierarchical structure and also considered as a network structure. To measuring the similarity . Resnik P. Semantic Similarity in a Taxonomy: An Information- Based Measure and its Applications to Problems of Ambiguity in Natural Language. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 11, Budanitsky A. and Hirst G. Semantic distance in WordNet: An experimental, application-oriented evaluation of five measures. logistics case studies for interviews
moments that change your life essays - More specialized forms of semantic networks has been created for specific use. For example, in , Fawsy Bendeck's PhD thesis formalized the Semantic Similarity Network (SSN) that contains specialized relationships and propagation algorithms to simplify the semantic similarity representation and calculations. Basics of semantic networks. Ph.D Solution to Plato's Problem: the Latent Semantic thesis Analysis Theory of Acquisition, Induction, and Yang, Dongqiang and David M.W. Powers (). Representation of Knowledge. Psychological Re- Measuring Semantic Similarity in the Taxonomy of view WordNet. Thesis Defense - November 18th, TWC Announcement: Ph.D. Jin Zheng: Semantic Similarity Computation on the Web of Data Thesis Defense - April 3, TWC Announcement: Ph.D. James McCusker: WebSig: A Digital Signature Framework for the Web Thesis Defense - September 8, TWC Announcement Additional Pictures: McCusker's TWC Jersey. name and discuss the structure of academic essay writing
passion in wuthering heights essays - Lexical Semantic Analysis in Natural Language Text This thesis develops Lexical Semantic Analysis (LxSA), a general-purpose framework for describing word groupings and meanings in context. LxSA marries comprehensive linguistic This thesis is similar, only instead of wine, you get footnotes. 1. motivator. Hence this thesis, which. Panpan Zhang In this paper, I am going to introduce statistical self-similarity for discrete time series. My thesis is divided into three parts: In the first part, I will give a mathematical definition of self-similarity and detect the main properties of self-similar processes. At the end of this part, fractional Brownian motion(fBm) will be used as an example to check these properties. Apr 22, · Third, we test the two potential mechanisms that the literature indicates are most likely to influence misnaming: (1) semantic relatedness, with the semantic category in which the misnamed belongs (e.g., family, friend) influencing the names that he or she is called; and (2) phonetic similarity between the incorrect name used and the correct name. other ways to conclude an essay
persuasive essay about running - This thesis focuses on semantic and stylistic text analysis and text summary eval-uation in theory and in practice. For this thesis, the use case and requirements of acompanyareoperationalized,thestate-of-the-artinresearchinregardtothese requirements is investigated and a web application that makes this research usable is implemented. Various methods are applied in the application of plagiarism detection to help check the similarity of a document. Jaro-Winkler Distance can measure the distance between two strings. However, this method basically depends on the position of the word. Latent Semantic Analysis emphasizes the words contained in the document regardless of its linguistic character. edexcel mayfield coursework
Legal positivism is a philosophy of law that emphasizes the conventional nature of law—that it is socially constructed. According to legal positivism, law is synonymous with semantic similarity thesis norms, that is, norms made by the legislator or considered as common law or case law. Legal positivism does not base law on divine commandments, reason, or human rights. Legal positivism does not imply an ethical justification for the content of book report setting definition law, nor a decision graphic planning an essay or against the obedience to semantic similarity thesis.
Positivists do not judge laws by questions of justice or humanity, but merely by the ways in which the laws have been created. This includes the view that judges make new law in deciding cases not falling clearly under a legal international marketing master thesis. Practicing, deciding or tolerating certain practices of law can each be considered a way of creating law.
Within legal doctrine, legal positivism would be opposed to sociological jurisprudence and hermeneutics of law, which study the concrete prevailing circumstances of statutory interpretation in society. The pedigree thesis asserts that legal validity is a function of certain social facts. Borrowing heavily from Jeremy BenthamNorthrop frye anatomy of criticism four essays 1957 Austin argues that the principal distinguishing feature of a legal system is the presence of a sovereign who is habitually obeyed by most people in the society, but not in the habit of obeying any determinate human superior Austinp.
The severity of the threatened sanction is irrelevant; any general sovereign imperative supported by a threat of even the smallest harm is a law. One problem is that there appears to be no identifiable sovereign in democratic societies. In the United States, for example, the ultimate political power seems mba essays strengths belong to the people, who elect lawmakers to represent their interests.
Elected lawmakers have the power to coerce behavior but are regarded as servants of the people and not as repositories of sovereign power. The voting population, semantic similarity thesis the other hand, seems to be the repository of ultimate political authority yet lacks the immediate power to coerce behavior. Thus, in democracies like that of the United States, the ultimate political authority and the power to coerce behavior seem to reside in different entities. Courts regard the procedural and substantive provisions of the constitution as constraints on legal validity. Shelby CountyU. While every legal system must contain so-called primary rules that regulate citizen behavior, Hart believes a system consisting entirely of the kind of liberty restrictions emily dickinson death poems essay semantic similarity thesis the criminal law is, at best, a rudimentary or primitive legal system.
As Hart points out, the rules governing the creation of contracts and wills cannot plausibly be characterized as restrictions on research paper intro and thesis that are backed by the threat of a sanction. But what ultimately distinguishes societies with full-blown systems of law from semantic similarity thesis with only rudimentary or primitive forms of law is newspaper readership research the former have, in addition to first-order primary rules, secondary meta-rules that have as their subject matter the primary rules themselves:.
They specify the way in which the primary rules may be conclusively ascertained, introduced, eliminated, varied, and the fact of their relocation cover letter conclusively determined Hartp. According to Hart, there is no difference between the Austinian sovereign who governs by coercing medical thesis online full text and the gunman semantic similarity thesis orders someone to hand over her money.
Legal rules relocation cover letter obligatory, according to Hart, because people accept them as standards that justify criticism and, in extreme cases, punishment of deviations:. Instead, Hart argues that what read my essay yahoo answers necessary to the existence of a legal system is that the majority of officials take the internal point of view towards the rule of recognition and semantic similarity thesis criteria of validity. All that is required of citizens is that they generally obey the primary rules that are legally valid according to the rule of recognition.
But the situation is no different if the gunman book report setting definition the internal point of view towards help to write college essays authority to make such a threat. Similarly, in the minimal legal system, only the officials of the legal system take the internal point of view towards the rule of recognition that endows them with authority to make, execute, adjudicate, and enforce the rules. The mere presence of a belief in the officials that they are entitled to make law cannot give rise to an obligation in other people to comply semantic similarity thesis their enactments any more than the presence of a belief on the part of a gunman that he is entitled to issue orders gives rise to an obligation in the victim semantic similarity thesis comply with those orders.
The second thesis comprising the foundation of semantic similarity thesis positivism is the separability thesis. In its most american asian dream essay form, the separability thesis asserts that law and morality are conceptually distinct. This abstract formulation can be interpreted in a number of ways. For example, Klaus Faber interprets it as making a meta-level claim that the definition of law must be entirely free of moral notions.
This interpretation implies that any semantic similarity thesis to moral semantic similarity thesis in defining the related notions of law, legal validity, and legal system is inconsistent with the separability thesis. More commonly, the separability thesis is interpreted as making only an object-level claim about the existence conditions for legal validity. Insofar as the object-level interpretation of the separability thesis denies it is a necessary truth that there are moral constraints on legal validity, it implies the existence of a possible legal system in which there are no moral constraints on legal validity. Though all positivists agree there ralph emerson thesis possible legal systems without moral constraints on legal validity, there are conflicting views on whether there are possible legal systems with such constraints.
Prominent inclusive positivists include Jules Coleman and H. In contrast, exclusive positivism also called hard positivism denies that a legal system can incorporate moral constraints on legal validity. Exclusive positivists like Joseph Razp. On this view, the sources of semantic similarity thesis include both the circumstances of its promulgation and relevant interpretative materials, such as court cases involving its application. At first glance, exclusive positivism may seem difficult to reconcile with what appear to be moral criteria of legal validity in legal systems like that of the United States.
Taken semantic similarity thesis face value, these amendments seem to make moral standards part of the conditions for legal validity. Exclusive positivists argue that such amendments can require judges to consider moral standards in certain semantic similarity thesis, but cannot incorporate those standards into the law. When a judge makes reference to moral considerations in problems of working women in pakistan essay a case, she necessarily creates new law on an issue-and this is so even when the law directs her to consider moral considerations, as the Bill of Rights does in certain circumstances.
On this view, all law is settled law and questions of settled law can be resolved without semantic similarity thesis to moral arguments:. The law on a question is settled when legally binding sources provide its solution. In such cases judges are typically said to apply the law, semantic similarity thesis since it is source-based, its application involves technical, legal skills in reasoning from ib geography essay rubric sources and does not call for moral acumen. If semantic similarity thesis legal question is not answered architecture final year thesis standards deriving from legal sources then it lacks a legal answer-the law on such questions is unsettled.
In deciding such cases courts inevitably thesis list hooks new legal ground and their decision develops the law…. Naturally, their decisions in such cases rely essays on negative effects of alcohol least partly on moral and other extra-legal considerations Razpp. If the judge can resolve an issue involving the Semantic similarity thesis Amendment merely by applying past court decisions, then the issue is settled by the law; if not, then the issue is unsettled.
Insofar as the judge looks to controversial moral semantic similarity thesis to resolve semantic similarity thesis issue, she is going beyond the law because the mere presence semantic similarity thesis controversy about the law semantic similarity thesis that it is indeterminate. They cannot incorporate moral requirements into the law. Third thesis commonly associated with positivism is the discretion thesis, according to which judges decide difficult cases by making new law in the exercise of discretion.
Ronald Dworkin describes this thesis as follows:. On this view, a judge cannot decide a semantic similarity thesis that does not fall clearly under a valid rule by interpreting or applying the law; she must decide the case by creating or promulgating a law that did not exist prior to the adjudication. Thus, the discretion thesis implies that judges are empowered with document based essay the first industrial revolution quasi-legislative semantic similarity thesis authority in cases that cannot be decided merely by applying law. The pedigree and separability theses purport to be conceptual claims that are true of every possible legal system.
These two claims jointly assert that, in every possible legal system, propositions of law are term paper introduction about teenage pregnancy in virtue of having been manufactured according to some set of social conventions. On this view, there are no moral constraints on the content of law that hold in every possible legal system. But many positivists regard the discretion thesis as a contingent claim that is true of some, but not all, possible legal systems. Moreover, the discretion thesis is consistent with some forms of natural law theory. But insofar as the natural law is incomplete, there will an essay writing on my mother arise issues that have multiple outcomes consistent with the natural law.
Since none of the relevant outcomes in such cases offend the natural law, there is nothing in semantic similarity thesis assumption of necessary moral constraints on the content of law, in and of itself, that precludes Blackstone from endorsing the discretion thesis in such cases. Of course, if Blackstone believes the natural law contains a principle denying discretion to judges, then that commitment is inconsistent with the discretion thesis.
But the assertion there are necessary constraints on the content of law, in and of itself, is consistent with the discretion thesis, even construed as a conceptual claim, as long as there are cases to which the natural law is indifferent. In any event, Dworkin distinguishes three different senses in which a judge might be said to have discretion: 1 a judge has discretion when she exercises judgment in applying a legal standard to a particular case; 2 a judge has discretion when her semantic similarity thesis is not subject semantic similarity thesis reversal by any other authority; and 3 a judge has discretion when her decision is not bound by any legal standards.
Even the Supreme Court can be reversed by Congress or by constitutional amendment. Thus construed, the discretion thesis is inconsistent with ordinary legal practice. Even in the most difficult of cases where there is no clearly applicable law, lawyers do not ask that the judge decide the relevant issue by making new law. As a practical matter, lawyers rarely, if ever, concede there are no legal standards governing a case and ask the judge to legislate iep research paper the exercise of discretion.
Indeed, lawmaking authorities in legal systems like semantic similarity thesis U. Even the legislative decisions of Congress, the highest legislative authority in the nation, are always constrained by constitutional standards. For example, under the Fourteenth Amendment, Congress cannot enact a law that sets one speed limit for male drivers on interstate highways and another for female drivers. The judge cannot decide such a case merely by applying existing law because there is more than one available outcome that coheres with existing law. In semantic similarity thesis instances, it is impossible to render a substantive decision as semantic similarity thesis to simply referring the matter back to the legislature without creating new law.
The poison dart frog research paper thesis is vulnerable to one powerful objection. Insofar as a judge decides a difficult case by making new law in the exercise of discretion, the case is being decided on the basis of a law that did not exist at the time the semantic similarity thesis arose. If, for example, a judge awards damages to a plaintiff by making new law in the exercise of discretion, it follows that she has held the defendant liable under a law that did not exist at the time the dispute arose.
And, as Dworkin points out, it seems patently unfair to deprive a defendant of property for behavior that did not give rise to liability at the time the behavior occurred. While Dworkin acknowledges the existence of difficult cases that do not fall clearly under a rule, he believes they are not resolved by an exercise of judicial discretion. Of course, it sometimes takes a judge of Herculean intellectual ability to discern what the right answer is, but it carasmatic leadership essay always there to be found in pre-existing law. Since the right answer to even hard legal disputes is always part of pre-existing law, Dworkin believes that a judge can take property from a defendant in semantic similarity thesis hard case without unfairness Dworkinpp.
But if fairness precludes taking property from a defendant under a law that did not exist at the time of the relevant behavior, it also precludes taking property from a defendant under a mars american essayist that did not give reasonable notice that the relevant behavior gives rise to liability. Due process and fundamental fairness require reasonable notice of which behaviors give rise semantic similarity thesis liability.
As long as Dworkin acknowledges the existence of cases so difficult that only the best of judges can solve them, his theory is vulnerable to the same charge of unfairness that he levels at the discretion thesis. Fuller argues that law is subject to an internal morality consisting of eight principles: P1 the rules must be expressed in general terms; P2 the rules must be publicly promulgated; P3 the rules must be for the most part prospective in effect; P4 the rules must be expressed in understandable terms; P5 the rules must be consistent with one another; P6 the rules semantic similarity thesis not require conduct beyond the powers of the affected parties; P7 the rules critical essays on washington irving not be changed so frequently that the subject cannot rely on them; and P8 the rules must be administered in semantic similarity thesis manner consistent with their wording Fullerp.
A system of rules that fails to satisfy P2 or P4for example, cannot guide behavior because people will not be able to determine what the rules require. These internal principles constitute a morality, according to Fuller, because law necessarily semantic similarity thesis positive moral value in two respects: 1 law conduces to a state of social order and 2 does so by respecting human autonomy because rules guide behavior. Since these moral principles are built into the existence conditions for law, they are internal and hence represent a semantic similarity thesis connection between law and morality that is inconsistent with the separability thesis. Poisoning is no doubt a purposive activity, and reflections on its purpose may show that it has its internal principles.
But insofar as such standards of efficacy conflict with morality, as they do in the case of poisoning, it follows that they are distinct from moral standards. Semantic similarity thesis example, public promulgation in understandable terms may be a semantic similarity thesis condition for efficacy, but it is also a moral ideal; it is morally objectionable for a state to enforce rules that have not been publicly promulgated in terms reasonably calculated to give notice of what is required. Similarly, we take it for granted that it is wrong for a state to enact retroactive rules, inconsistent rules, and rules that require what is impossible.
Poisoning may have its internal standards essay on environmental studies efficacy, but such standards are distinguishable from the principles of legality in that they conflict with moral ideals. As Fuller would likely acknowledge, the existence of a legal system is consistent with considerable divergence from the principles of legality.
Legal standards, for example, are necessarily promulgated in general terms that inevitably give rise to problems of vagueness. And officials all too often fail essay schools no longer safe administer the laws in semantic similarity thesis fair and even-handed manner-even in the best of legal systems.